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Lecture 22

GEOG 1HA3 Lecture 22: geo 1ha3 note 22.docx


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1HA3
Professor
Michael Mercier
Lecture
22

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The geography of terror
Terrorism: threat or use of violence against (mainly) civilians in order to inculcate fear, gain influence and/or advance a specific
course of conviction
- The systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting
demands
Tactics: bombs, kidnapping, hijacking, assassinations etc.
Intentions: 1) instill fear 2) Generate harm 3) Gain influence
Example one: Munich Olympics – Munich Germany 09/05/1972
Example two: Air Indian Flight 182 – Cork, Ireland 06/23/1985
Example three: WTC, Pentagon and White House - USA 09/11/2001
Multiple other examples: Basque Spain, Ireland/N. Ireland, Israel/Palestine, OKc, Madrid/London, Mumbai, Moscow
4 broad (and often over-lapping) categories of terrorism:
1. Revolutionary: seeking a political regime change
e.g. Algerian front deliberation nationale (FLN) against French colonial rule in the 1950s
2. Separatist: seeking autonomy or independence
e.g. Basque (ETA) or Quebec (FLQ)
3. Single Issue: seeking to advance a specific cause
e.g. PETA on green peace
4. Cultural (linguistic/region): seeking cultural change
e.g. Al-Qaeda
Where is terrorism most prevalent:
- Depends…terrorism varies regionally over time
- World-wide rates of terrorism have reached constant over the past 50 years, but acts of terrorism in the ‘west’ seem to
be more prevalent today than in the past
Why is terrorism on the rise? (Against US & West)
- Terrorists consider citizens as justified targets since citizens are responsible for government policies and cultural
practices
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