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Lecture 10

GEOG 1HB3 Lecture 10: Geography lecture 10

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Michael Mercier

Globally population is understood with reference to two factors: fertility(births) and mortality (deaths) p1=p0 + (B-D) Regionally though, population is also influenced by population movement: Migration (immigration and emigration) p1=p0 + (B-D) + (I-E) 1. Crude birth rate (CBR): CBR= (B/P) x 1000 Total number of live births per year for every 1000 people already living - True Fertility: - A) the number of women in the population, and - B) the number of women of child-bearing age (I.e. 15-49) 2. General Fertility Rate (or fecundity) (GFR): GFR = (B/Pf-15-49) x 1000 3. TFR: the average number of children a women will have in her fecund years (15-49) - global tfr = 2.5 (2015); MDW =<2.0 and LDW= 2.0 - Replacement rate: ~2.1 Many factors influence the rates of fertility • Age, nutritional well being, level of economic development, and culture Total Fertility Rate: average number of children a woman will have in her reproductive years 1. Crude Death Rate (CDR): CDR= (D/P) x 1000 • Total number of deaths per year for every 1000 people • CDR does not account for the age of the population 2. Infant Mortality Rate (an age adjusted rate) (IMR) IMR = (D0-1/B) x 1000 • Range from less than 10 to more than 100 3. Life Expectancy: the average number of years of life • Range from the low 40s to more than 80 • Many factors influence the rates of mortality • Age of population, access to health care services, economic circumstances, environmental conditions • Average number of years an infant can expect to live (assuming current mortality rates) Population Natural Increase: HIGH fertility with DECREASING mortality means some areas have high natural increase • • LOW fertility and LOW m
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