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GEOG 1HB3 (258)

Maps and Spatial Understanding.docx

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Michael Mercier

Maps and Spatial Understanding Gravity Questions • The primary influences over the level of interaction are the size of the two cities and the distance between the cities. (bigger the cities = more interaction, smaller the distance = more interaction) • The distance decay function changes the level of interaction between the two cities. • The distance decay function should vary among cities because the levels of accessibility/connectivity also fluctuate. Maps are two dimensional graphical representations of the world, and they depict spatial relationships. • Communicate information • Analysis of spatial information (made by individuals or companies, subjected to bias) • Socially constructed • Maps are challenging because we are trying to portray a 3D globe on 2D Projection is a mathematical technique for representing a 3D sphere on a 2D map. • Put a paper on the surface of the earth, and shine a light bulb on it. Shadows become the continents. Perfect reflection for the images touching the paper, but there is a distorted image for the images further away from the paper. • Three types of projection; all have varying levels of accuracy and the main forms of distortion are from distance, direction, and the area. 1. Cylindrical projections are projected onto a cylinder that touches the outside edges of the globe. The paper is wrapped around the globe. • Accuracy is greatest at the Equator and declines as you move towards the North and South Poles. 2. Conical projections are projected onto a cone that touches the outside edges of the globe. The cone sits on the mid-latitudes. • Accuracy is greatest in the mid- latitudes, and it declines as you move towards the two poles. 3. Azimuthal projections are projected onto a flat surface that touches the globe at one single poin
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