A map is a graphic representation of the geographical setting.
• Shows where places and things are located
• “Any concrete or abstract image of the distributions and features that occur on or near
the surface of the earth or other celestial bodies.
• Many kinds of maps (political, social, and geographical)
• Display data but they also reveal spatial relationships
• Cartography is the art of map-making
The purpose of a map is to record and communicate information about the environment.
• Shows relationships between features
• Determines patterns formed by many types of distributions on the earth’s surface
Everybody can make and use maps.
• Google Earth and OpenStreetMap are examples that contribute to map-making\
• GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
A topographic map is a 2D picture of a 3D surface.
• Contour lines are used to represent height or elevation of geographical features. They
measure slope, angles, and aspects and help users to visualize the variations among
• Produced by putting multiple maps together to cover a large area
• Show the surface of the earth in great detail
• Provide elevation information
Topographic maps provide useful 3D topographic information that can be used for a variety