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Lecture 3

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Walter Peace

September 14, 2012 Introduction - Why is distance so important in (urban-economic) geography? - Distance - critical determinant of real-world, spatial relationships - The "first law of geography": Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." - What does this mean? Why is this the case? Human Systems and Spatial Interaction - Spatial interaction: the movement of phenomena (people, goods, money, ideas, etc.) between locations. (What spatial interaction have you carried out today?) Texting a friend. - Spatial interaction is necessary, in simple terms, because not all things are available in all places, i.e., things are not ubiquitous, so getting something that is available in place A to/from place B involves spatial interaction and, therefore, costs. - What principles govern spatial interaction? European Interaction with the World, in wealth generated by trade, 1500-1800 Relative Location & Spatial interaction and Movement. The coloured lines describe the flow of wealth to Europe as a result of long distance European control of trade. Fig. 2.34 Marston et. al. p. 84 1. Ullmann postulated that spatial interaction is controlled by "three flow- determining factors": - Complementarity: these supply and demand relationship between two places, i.e., for interaction to occur, place A must have/supply what place B wants/demands - interaction does not occur simply because places are different, e.g., Greenland and Amazon basin - supply location (place A) must be linked to a market (plan B), e.g., fruits/vegetables grown in California shipped to urban markets in Canada 2. Transferability: the acceptable costs of an exchange, i.e., availability and demand might not be linked due to the prohibitive cost ($, time) - Transferability - an expression of the mobility of a commodity - is determined by three interrelated conditions: - the characteristics and value of the good; - the distance over which the good must be moved; and - the ability of the good to bear the costs of movement 3. Intervening Opportunity - Intervening opportunity: closer opportunities will reduce the attractiveness of interaction with more distance alternatives, i.e., interaction is more likely with closer opportunities than with more distant opportunities (all other things being equal) - Other Considerations 4. Distance Decay - Distance decay: the decrease in interaction with a location as distance from that location increases (see Fig. 3.7, p. 68) - Related to the concept of 'the friction of distance' - the restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction, i.e., the greater the distance, the less the interaction between two locations 5. The Gravity Model - Other factors, besides
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