Land Use Theory and Urban Structure
10/26/2012 9:03:00 PM
The city is a built environment where a range of activities take place; these activities
or “land uses” are divided into six general categories:
o 1. Residential
o 2. Industrial
o 3. Roads
o 4. Public land
o 5. Commercial
o 6. Vacant land
o 1. What do urban land use patterns look like? (DESCRIPTION)
o 2. What are the determinants of urban land use patterns? (EXPLANATION)
o 3. What do these patterns tell us about cities and how they function in
economic terms? (INTERPRETATION)
Classic Models of Urban Structure
o Concentric Zone Model – Burgess
o Sector Model – Hoyt
o Multiple-Nuclei Model – Harris and Ullman
(See pp. 268 – 270; figures 8.25, 8.26 and 8.27)
2. Urban Land Use and Competition for Space
Each location/point in the city is associated with:
o 1. Distance from the CBD and;
o 2. The cost associated with overcoming that distance (to the CBD). In other
words, each location is associated with two costs – land cost and
o CBD= Central Business District
o How do land costs and transportation costs change as distance from the CBD
o As Distance from the CBD increases, transportation costs will increase?
o But what about land costs?
o Assume that the total amount available to sped on land and transportation
combined is constant at all distances.
o Then, as distance from the CBD increases, the amount left over (from a
constant total) to pay for land gets smaller.
o In other words, land which is closer to the CBD offers two advantages:
1. Lower transportation costs; and 2. Greater accessibility
o But, in order to obtain these advantages, we will have to pay higher land costs
o Robert Haig (1926) Complementarity Hypothesis: rent appears as the charge
which the owner of a relatively more accessible site can impose because of the
saving in transportation cost which the use of that site makes possible.
o In other words, land costs (land values) and transportation costs are
R(D)= rent or land value at distance D from the