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Lecture 12

Notesolutions Geog Lecture 12.docx

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Walter Peace

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Land Use Theory and Urban Structure 10/26/2012 9:03:00 PM 1. Introduction  The city is a built environment where a range of activities take place; these activities or “land uses” are divided into six general categories: o 1. Residential o 2. Industrial o 3. Roads o 4. Public land o 5. Commercial o 6. Vacant land  Questions: o 1. What do urban land use patterns look like? (DESCRIPTION) o 2. What are the determinants of urban land use patterns? (EXPLANATION) o 3. What do these patterns tell us about cities and how they function in economic terms? (INTERPRETATION)  Classic Models of Urban Structure o Concentric Zone Model – Burgess o Sector Model – Hoyt o Multiple-Nuclei Model – Harris and Ullman  (See pp. 268 – 270; figures 8.25, 8.26 and 8.27) 2. Urban Land Use and Competition for Space  Each location/point in the city is associated with: o 1. Distance from the CBD and; o 2. The cost associated with overcoming that distance (to the CBD). In other words, each location is associated with two costs – land cost and transportation cost o CBD= Central Business District o How do land costs and transportation costs change as distance from the CBD increases? o As Distance from the CBD increases, transportation costs will increase? o But what about land costs? o Assume that the total amount available to sped on land and transportation combined is constant at all distances. o Then, as distance from the CBD increases, the amount left over (from a constant total) to pay for land gets smaller. o In other words, land which is closer to the CBD offers two advantages:  1. Lower transportation costs; and  2. Greater accessibility o But, in order to obtain these advantages, we will have to pay higher land costs (rent). o Robert Haig (1926) Complementarity Hypothesis: rent appears as the charge which the owner of a relatively more accessible site can impose because of the saving in transportation cost which the use of that site makes possible. o In other words, land costs (land values) and transportation costs are complementary:  R(D)= rent or land value at distance D from the
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