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Lecture 11

Notesolutions Geog Lecture 11.docx
Notesolutions Geog Lecture 11.docx

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McMaster University
Walter Peace

1. Introduction
  Permanent Human settlement – very recent; first cities 3500 BCE, Earliest cities associated with culture hearths/ 1st civilization in regions with favourable physical conditions e.g. river valleys of Tigris & Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia (present day Iran/Iraq)  Urbanization – process whereby a society is transformed from predominately rural to urban in character, i.e a process of societal change reflecting the increasing importance of cities and urbanism
 First instance of urbanization – Great Britain beginning mid 18th century Global Trends  Urbanism – way of life (values, behavior) associated with city living  Shock city – a city seen as the embodiment of surprising and un precedented changes in economic, social and cultural conditions  World city – a city in which a disproportionate share of the world’s most important business is conducted 2. a brief history of urbanization  First cities – 5000 to 6000 years ago o Agricultural surplus theory o City as public good (religious or military functions) o City as a center of exchange (economic/market functions)  18th Century o Industrial Revolution – Great Britain – emergence of first large, modern cities; urbanization spreads to western Europe, then to N.A (same as industrial capitalism)  Conditions/characteristics of process: o 1. Mechanization (of agriculture) o 2. Factory mode of production (industrial capitalism) o 3. Expansion of colonial empires o 4. “Explosive” urban growth – shock city (Manchester)  20 Century o Emergence of present-day world urban system featuring: o 1. Megalopitan development, e.g., “Megalopolis” (U.S.); Rhur Valley (Germany) o
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