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GEOG 2GI3 (2)

How are Problems Solved Using a GIS?

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Darren M Scott

Vector Data AnalysisVector analysis is done through nontopological methods like querying statistics and geocoding as well as topological methods that are either featurebased bufferingspatial joins or layerbased reclassifyoverlay A buffer is a zone with a specified width surrounding a spatial feature It can be created around any type of feature points lines or polygons A fixed width is usually assumed but in some cases variable width buffers may be usedsuch as development limits around rivers streams and lakes This is done by creating a new field in the attribute table for features in the river or stream category Buffering is used primarily for neighbourhood analysis that aims to evaluate the characteristics of an area surrounding a specific feature Applications for this include identification of properties within a certain distance of a road for notifying residents of road construction work that will affect them delineation of areas around natural areas such as rivers and streams ensuring areas have adequate coverage mobile phone signal fire department Multiple rings of buffers can be put around a feature 50m 100m etc to show degrading quality of coverage Buffering occurs around individual features so ensure that you are buffering with ALL option selected for dissolve type if you want an overall coverage mapSpatial joins are a special case of tabular joins using the shape field Essentially this assigns attribute data from features in one layer to spatially coincident features in another based on containment and proximity A good use of this tool would be to identify service stations located along a particular road based on the proximity of the service station point to the road line Matching counties from one layer to provinces in another when the province is not an attribute of the county features DestinationSourcePointLinePolygonPointProximityProximityContainmentLineProximityPart ofContainmentPolygonProximityProximityContainmentContainment is used when we want to know which polygons contain features from other layers The polygons in the source will or will not contain another point line or polygoneg schools in the inner city of Hamilton would be identified by using Oldcity as a source table and ONedu as a destination table to identify which Ontario schools fall within the old city of HamiltonA simple spatial join onetoone manytoone involves no ambiguity when assigning fields eg Which county is each school in A summarized spatial join onetoone manytoone might be how many schools are in each county For proximity spatial joins a simple join will tell you something like which attraction is closest to each hotel How far is it A summarized join will tell you how many attractions are closest to each hotel
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