GEOG 2OC3 Lecture 3: 2OC3 Week 3

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2OC3
Week 3
Climate
Climate: the long-term behaviour of the weather in a bounded area, usually averaged over
decades or centuries
Weather: the short-term, fluctuating behaviour of precipitation, cloud cover, temperature and
wind, usually over timescales less than a year
Influencing Factors: latitude, proximity to water, elevation, precipitation, ocean currents
Pacific Region
Marine climate influenced by the Pacific Ocean
o Warm summers and cool winters
Seasonal variation in temperature with wetter winter seasons
Orographic Precipitation: lifting of moist air over a mountain barrier
Pacific Cordillera
Higher elevation = lower average temperatures
Higher precipitation on leeward side of the mountains (due to orographic precipitation)
The Prairies
Continental climate with hot summers and cold winters
Precipitation patterns decrease east to west
Polar and tropical air current convergence occurs
The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Basin
Humid continental climate
o Hot humid summers and cold winters
Great Lakes have a moderating effect on winter temperatures
The Carolinian Forest
Sub-area of Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands
o Nickaed Deep “outh due to arest aerage teps i Caada ad the
longest frost-free season
25% of area, 33% of biodiversity
Nearly half of Caadas populatio i the idustrial heartlad
The Atlantic
Maritime Climate Zone (on East Coast)
o Warm summers and cool winters
Influenced by ocean currents
o Warm waters from the Caribbean carried North by Gulf Stream
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Document Summary

Climate: the long-term behaviour of the weather in a bounded area, usually averaged over decades or centuries. Weather: the short-term, fluctuating behaviour of precipitation, cloud cover, temperature and wind, usually over timescales less than a year. Influencing factors: latitude, proximity to water, elevation, precipitation, ocean currents. Marine climate influenced by the pacific ocean: warm summers and cool winters. Seasonal variation in temperature with wetter winter seasons. Orographic precipitation: lifting of moist air over a mountain barrier. Higher precipitation on leeward side of the mountains (due to orographic precipitation) Continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. Polar and tropical air current convergence occurs. Humid continental climate: hot humid summers and cold winters. Great lakes have a moderating effect on winter temperatures. Lawrence lowlands: nick(cid:374)a(cid:373)ed (cid:862)deep outh(cid:863) due to (cid:449)ar(cid:373)est a(cid:448)erage te(cid:373)ps i(cid:374) ca(cid:374)ada a(cid:374)d the longest frost-free season. Nearly half of ca(cid:374)ada(cid:859)s populatio(cid:374) i(cid:374) the i(cid:374)dustrial heartla(cid:374)d. Maritime climate zone (on east coast: warm summers and cool winters.

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