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GEOG 2RC3 (90)

7 The Industrial Heartland.docx

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Walter Peace

The Industrial Heartland -Central Canada – Ontario and Quebec -heartland: a geographic area in which a nation’s industry, population, and political power are concentrated -also known as a “core” region -“main street” – Canadian equivalent to US “Megalopolis” -175,000km , 1.8% of Canada ->55% of Canada’s population -6 of 10 largest CMAs, 18 of 33 CMAs -density > 100 persons/km 2 -10x higher than anywhere else in Canada -93% of Ontario’s population lives in this area, 80% of Quebec -together, ON and QC account for 62% of Canada’s population, most of which lives in the heartland -problem of regional boundaries: -textbook – treats ON and QC as separate regions -good for statistics -lectures – treats southernmost parts of ON/QC as one region, and the northernmost parts as belonging to the Near North and/or the Far North -problem of naming the region: -Great Lakes-St Lawrence Lowlands – physiographic region -only names its geographic location, doesn’t address social character -Industrial Heartland – historical significance of industry -decline of manufacturing -Central Canada – not actually the center of the country -nothing about the essence of the region Historical Development of the Industrial Heartland -3 sets of characteristics: 1) Physical – climate, soils, transportation, energy 2) Cultural – French/English 3) Economic – resources, trade, creation of wealth -the remarkable paradox – 2 distinct linguistic/cultural regions (faultline) – cultural/social disunity, yet at the same time, economic unity Toponyms -Upper Canada = Canada West = Southern Ontario -Lower Canada = Canada East = Southern Quebec Staples Theory -economic development linked to export of resources to external markets -Harold Innis, “The Fur Trade” -fish, fth, timber, wheat Late 18 Century -Upper Canada – largely unsettled interior of eastern North America -Lower Canada – “New France” – French settlement along St Lawrence River -seigneurial system of land tenure featured long, narrow lots of land with access to riverfront -struggle between Britain/France for control of North America culminates in British victory (over France) on the Plains of Abraham (1759) -settlement of Upper Canada: -United Empire Loyalists (1770s-1800) -American Revolution – people who wanted to remain part of Britain -War of 1812 -less than 2 decades – 450,000-1,400,000 (3x) -location of settlement influenced by geography -soils, water transportation -few living away from water -by 1850: -Lower Canada: -16 towns/cities (1000+) -14 of these <5000 -largest – Montreal and Quebec City -Upper Canada: -38 cities/towns (1000+) -Kingston, Hamilton, London, Ottawa (5000-25000) -largest – Toronto -present day system of cities in place 19 Century -contrast between Upper and Lower Canada – Upper Canada had better physical resource base (soils, climate) for agriculture than Lther Canada -by the end of the 19 century: -Lower Canada: -shortage of arable land -high birth rate -francophone migration to US -Upper Canada: -no shortage of agriculturally productive land -growing wheat economy -system of towns/cities facilitated export of wheat and import of manufactured goods from Britain/US -importance of water transportation -no settlement on Canadian Shield -proximity to NYC and the established manufacturing core of the US -trade routes of staples – development of urban system and the dominance of Montreal -south/west Ontario – best soils for agriculture, most heavily populated -dominance of Montreal in Lower Canada (Quebec City more peripheral), dominance of Toronto in Upper Canada (London, Kingston, Hamilton more peripheral) -vathety of geographical and historical factors underlying the development of an industrial heartland 20 Century -urbanization: the process whereby a society/nation is transformed from one which is predominantly rural in character to one which is predominantly urban in character -industrialization: the process whereby an economy becomes increasingly dominated by the factory mode of production -1880s – rise of industrial capitalism -1/4 of population – urban -agriculture beginning to decline, manufacturing on the increase -Ontario/Quebec differences: -ON – wheat decreasing, specialty agriculture increasing, urban/industrial growth, Toronto -QC – rural society, outmigration, Montreal -1880-1910 – GDP increased 4x -1881-1921 – population of ON/QC increased from 3 million to 5 million (62.5% of Canada’s population) -1913 – Canada ranked third (after US, Britain) in value of manufactured goods/capita -1880-1920 – manufacturing employment increased from 200,000 to 400,000 -cycles of economic growth: -Kuznetz cycles (15-25 years) -Kondratieff cycles (50-60 years) -regional differences in manufacturing types -ON based on electrical goods, primary metals, automobiles -urbanization trends: -1851 – 13.1% -1881 – 23.3% -1901 – 34.9% -1931 – 52.5% *first year in which more than half are classed as urban -1951 – 62.9% General Factors Underlying Urban-Industrial Growth 1) Resources/energy -soil – agriculture potential -water – transportation, power, domestic/industrial consumption -coal – Appalachia (water) 2) Initiative/entrepreneurship -UK/American investors -extreme concentration of wealth in Montreal -local idiosyncrasies – Sir Allan MacNab in Hamilton 3) Government policy -National Policy (1879) – two goals 1) Unify east/west by building trans-Canada railway 2) Protect/promote Canadian manufacturers by placing tariffs on imported manufactured goods from the US -resulted in the emergence of branch plant economy -by 1950, American-owned firms accounted for over half of Canadian manufacturing -impact of US investment in manufacturing – increased dependence on US technology, research and development, and decision-making 4) Corporate policy -increased corporate size through mergers/amalgamations (economies of scale) -especially steel, textiles, banking 6) Immigration th th -late 19 /early 20 centurie
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