Themes in Canada's Geography part2

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Published on 15 Oct 2011
School
McMaster University
Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 2RC3
Professor
Page:
of 5
Themes in Canada's Geography part II
September 22, 2011
10:32 AM
Purpose:
1. To describe social/economic trends in Canada
1. To examine social welfare issues in Canada
1. To demonstrate links among society, economy, and environment
See Bone, chapter 4 "Canada's Human Face"
Social Geographic Trends
What is social geography?
Geography: study of spatial patterns and processes
Social: culture, ethnicity, demography, welfare,…
"the geography of human condition"
Some important characteristics/ trends of Canada's social geography:
Population:
1991 27.3
2001 30
2006 31.6
2009 33.5
Urban population 2006 -> 80% urban (20% rural)
Doubling time: 116 years
Crude birth rate: 11/1000
Crude death rate: 8/1000
Life expectancy: women-> 83 years
Men -> 78.3 years
Regional variation in life expectancy (male & female):
British
Columbia
81.2
years
Ontario 81
Nunavut 72
Yukon 77
N.W.T. 78
Question: Why does life expectancy vary from region to region?
Immigration:
Annual number of immigrants (avg. in 1990's ~~ 225,000)
By 2006, nearly 20% of total population were born outside Canada
Provincial destinations of immigrants:
Ontario > 50%
Quebec ~~20%
British Columbia ~~ 15%
Immigrant Origins (pp. 145-149)
See fig. 4.4 (p 145)
Fig. 4.5 (p1146)
Table 4.11 (p. 147)
Table 4.12 (p. 148)
Fig. 4.6 (p. 147)
Note changing pattern of immigrant origins!
Spatial distribution of Canada's population:
Ecumene-> settled/ inhabited/ developed part of a country (where
people live)
Fig. 4.1 (p. 135)
South of 49th parallel ~~ 72-75% of population
Between 49th and 54 degree ~~ 27% of population
With 150 km of U.S. border = 75%
Population density- number of persons per unit of area
See pp. 132-136; table 4.2 (p. 133)
Canada's -> 3.3 persons / KM squared (note regional variations in
table 4.2)
Some comparisons
U.K 247.9/
km^2
Japan 337.6/km^
2
U.S. 29/km^2
Banglades
h
900/km^2
Spatial interaction:
Migration- long term relocation from one provincial/ territory to
another
Long-term trends- outmigration from Atlantic Canada; Manitoba &
Saskatchewan (Alberta more variable);
1996-2001:
Greatest gains through migration in Ontario, Alberta
Greatest losses through migration in Quebec, Newfoundland
& Labrador
Social composition of Canada's population:
Ethnicity- affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious,
or linguistic characteristics or national origin separate it from the
larger population
2006 census: > 200 ethnic origins
5 largest ethnic origins:
Canadia 32.2%
n
English 21%
French 15.8%
Scottish 15.1%
Irish 13.9%
Note changes to ethnic composition through 20th century
Canada: mosaic/ multiculturalism
United States; melting pot
Total population, 1851-2006
See table 4.7 (p. 142)
Year Populatio
n
1951 14.0 million
1981 24.3 million
2006 30.6 million
See Vignette 4.2 The Baby Boom Effect (p. 141)
Urban population
See p. 136-140; table 4.4 (pg. 138)
Urban- places with 1,000 or more people and a density of at least 400
persons/ mi^2
Urbanization- process of societal change whereby the proportion of the
population classes as urban increases
Year %
Urban
1851 13.1%
1911 41.8%
1931 52.5%
1971 76.4%
2006 80%
Census metropolitan area- large urban area with at least 100,000
people, together with adjacent smaller urban centers and even rural
areas that have a high degree of economic and social integration with
the urban area
e.g. Hamilton CMA
Education
% of population entering college/ university (2001):