Montreal: the social geography of a 19th c metropolis. Contrasts in terms of the human condition : the city below the hill. 1534: jacques cartier discovers the village of hochelaga. 1700: montreal focal point of fur trade. 1784: montreal merchants organize the north west co. (simon mctavish) 1817: canada s first bank: bank of montreal. During the second half of 19th c: continental outreach, transportation center - water, rail, dominance in manuf. , finance, politics. Social & economic diff in 19th c montreal. Herbert ames (1896) the city below the hill : study of working-class district of montreal along st. lawrence river, La chine canal: 37,000 residents; 8,300 apts. (density 14,300 persons/km, context of study: material prosperity (for some) & social misery (for others, ppltn in 1901 = 267,000, 3 socio-cultural groups: french cndn, irish cndn, english/british. The city above the hill is the home of the classes.