Class Notes (809,264)
Canada (493,601)
Geography (877)
GEOG 2RC3 (90)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10- 2RC3

5 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Walter Peace

st Lecture 10- 2RC3: Western Canada June 1 , 2011 Western Canada (Prairies)  See Bone pp. 325 to 332  Corporate Influence: o Hudson Bay Company o Canadian Pacific Railway  By Confederation: o Subsistence agriculture o Large scale settlement needed to prevent U.S. expansion Historical Evolution of the Region  Three pre-requites for settlement o Land survey o Separate lands for Aboriginals o Rail link  Still, settlement below expectations due to: o Natural events: grasshopper plagues o Economic conditions: high cost of manufactured goods (from Ont./Que.); high transportation costs; low whet prices-few people willing to risk farming under these conditions  Role of CPR o Company given $25 million + 25 million acres of land o Land ownership pattern: limited possibility of irrigation-agriculture settlement prevented on some of best land- settlement still lagged behind expectations  Clifford Sifton (Bone p. 329) o Minister of Interior, 1896-1905 o Pre-Sifton years, immigrants from British Isles, western Europe recruited for settlement on prairies- unsuccessful due to lack of experience/familiarity with environmental conditions of prairies o Sifton recruited immigrants from central/eastern Europe (Slavs, Ukranians, Hungarians, Doukhbors etc.)  These immigrants successfully settled in western Canada due to their familiarity/experience with prairie environment, i.e., prairies very similar to steppes of eastern Europe o Results:  Large scale settlement of the west preventing U.S. expansion;  Impact on social/cultural landscape of the west o Sifton also freed land from CPR, making it available for agricultural settlement Drought and Depression on the Prairies in the 1930s  Combined effects of economic depression and severe drought- wheat production reduced to subsistence levels: o Most severe drought- south Saskatchewan  Average returns/acre:  1921-1929: 15 cents per acre  1930-1938: $4 per acre o Even in drought-free areas, the effects of depression were significant, e.g., eastern Manitoba:  Average return/acre:  1921-1929: $17 per acre  1930-1938: $10 per acre -Depression felt more severely on prairies than other parts of Canada  Saskatchewan: o 1928-1933: per capita income decreased 72% o 1928: wheat yields in south > 20 bu/acre o 1937: wheat yields in south < 4 bu/acre (drought, grasshoppers, disease)  1931-1941: 200,000 people left prairies  Market value of Saskatchewan wheat o 1928: $1.30/bu o 1937: $0.10/bu  “Prairie optimism”- Next Year Country (p. 327) Western Canada’s Oil Boom (see Bone, pp. 348-353)  Alberta’s oil sands- Canada second to Saudi Arabia in proven oil reserves  Total area of oil sands deposits= 50,000 km^2  Presently- 6 mines produce ¾ million barrels of synthetic crude daily; production expected to reach 2 million barrels per day by 2020  Estimated 173 billion barrels that are “economically recoverable” today; total deposit est. 1.7 trillion barrels Oil Sands vs Tar Sands  Terms are synonymous. i.e, no technological or geological difference, however, o Oil Sands  Convey cleaner image  Used by petroleum industry for this reason o Tar Sands  Conjures up images of a “sticky, smelly, dirty kind of petroleum resource”  Used by critics to suggest this is “messy, expensive, and dirty oil”  Environmental concerns: o Waste: tailings ponds (50 mi^2); April 2008- 500 ducks died; Greenpeace- “World’s Dirtiest Oil: Stop the Tar Sands” o Oil sands 15-40% dirtier than conventional oil; coal fired power plants much greater sources of carbon dioxide  Economic Benefits: o $50 billion spent on construction in past 10 years ($20 billion in 2008 alone) o 1/3 of Alberta’s revenue from lease sales/royalties on fossil fuel extraction o U.S. imports more oil from Canada than any other nation (19% of its foreign supply, one-half of which comes from oil sands) Resource Towns: Fort McMurray, Alberta  First planned resource town in Canada o Nanaimo, B.C (mining)  Other examples: o Iroquois Falls, Ont. (1915) o Kapuskasing, Ont. (1921) o Temiskaming, Que. (1917) (pulp and paper mill towns)  Rapid growth; boom-bust syndrome driven be rise/fall of external demand for resource (forest products; minerals; hydroelectric power)  Fort McMurray, Alberta o 435 km north of Edmonton o Pre-1870: trading post for Hudson’s Bay Company o Population: o 1945: 1000 o 1966: 2000 o 1976: 15 000 o 1996: 30 000 o 2006: 64 000 o 2015 (est.): 100 000  Growth of population + economy driven by Athabasca Oil Sands Project (Suncor, Syncrude- two largest companies)  1.2 million barrels of oil/day  Est reserve: 2.5 million barrels/day for 200 years  Area of land “disturbed” for oil sands development: o 2003: 430 km2 o 2004: 950 km2
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 2RC3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.