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Geography 2UI3 Compliation

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McMaster University
Heather Dorries

Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography January 10 2013 Introduction to Urban Geography Agenda  Goals of Urban Geography  Core concepts: space, territory, distance, place  Approaches to urban geography Urban Geography  Description vs explanation  Understand the distinctiveness of places (uniqueness)  Understand regularities between places (similarity)  Highlight relations between people and the urban environment  Relations between people and the urban environment  Environment: includes natural physical environment and the built environment  Built environment: created by humans, including roads, bridges, buildings, houses, schools, sidewalks Important  Economic environment: economic institutions and structures  Social environment: social institutions and structures  Interdisciplinary Approach  Draws on knowledge and methods from other disciplines –comes from sociologists  Borrows from anthropology given us methods that urban geographers use to answer certain types of questions  Borrows from history: often asking why cities have developed in the way that they have  Borrows from economics: economic environment  What makes urban geography different from political science, sociology etc?  What makes it separate is the emphasis on special processes Core Concepts: Space  Space: the medium in which economic, social, political and historic processes are expressed  Things have a physical reality Public Space  Public space space to which all citizens have a right to access  the public sphere (Jurgen Habermas), as a space where deliberative and rational communication can take place, is often believed to be necessary for the formation of a democratic society Territoriality  Territoriality: the tendency for particular groups to establish control or dominate within localized area  Often established through symbols that sign identity Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography  An important term for urban geography because it is part of what creates the distinctiveness of urban places Distance  Distance: the amount of space between two things  Urban geography distance is related to questions of consumption and to goods, services, jobs, amenities, etc… Place  Place: a specific geographic location with distinctive physical and human characteristic  Sense of place: places with distinctive meanings  “to be human is to live in a world filled with significant places: to be human is to have and to know your place” (Edward Ralph) Approaches to Urban Geography  approaches tells us something very different of what is happening in urban space  some are better at explaining certain things  each has their own benefits and drawbacks  there have been trends over time in urban geography  spatial descritption  describing characteristics of towns and cities (physical characteristics/ surroundings)  typography, buildings, location –physical characteristics  spatial analysis  establish relationships between various characteristics of towns and cities in order to construct models of urban growth Behavioural and Humanistic Approaches  Behavioural approach  About studying behaviour of individuals in cities  Humanistic Approach Concerned with human experience and emotion Interested in the ways that people attach meaning and significance to places  Political Economy Approach Interested in how (macro) economic changes affects urbanization Relies on both political science and economics to draw conclusions about how and why cities have particular characters Focus on the relations beween economic and political decision making  Feminist Approach Deals with inequalities between men and women How gender relations effect space in city (housing choice) Asks how unequal gender relations are reflected in the spatial structure of cities Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography Urbanization as a process  Outcomes of change ie: changes in land use, urban settings can be viewed as problems  Changes in city –might result in an overcrowding problem, not enough houses for everyone  Constant system/cycle of change  Different types of change that influence the city  Easily visible urban change Economic Change  Economic changes are at the heart of dynamics that shape urbanization  The evolution of capitalism has been a powerful force in the shaping of cities Capitalism  A distinctive economic system (different from feudalism or communism)  Emphasis on the accumulation of capital (ie: profit)  Elements: Private property Labour (can be purchase/sold for money or wages) Markets (supply and demand) Prices (for goods and labour set by the market) Means of production (labour, capital, technology) Phases of Capitalism Industrial Revolution  Began in England and then spread to Europe and North America  Technological change: water power and steam power enabled transition from hand production to machine/factory production Competitive Capitalism  Late 18 century to the end of the 19 century  Liberalism = competition between small family business, with few constraints imposed by governments or other authorities; emphasis on “free market”  Other characteristic: division of labour, beginning of specialization Managerial Captialism th th  Late 19 century to mid 20 century  Expanded role of government to regulate negative side effects of free- enterprise capitalism (eg mediate relationship between organized labour or organized business_  Fordism =mass production based on assembly  Suburbanization =having good jobs that allowed them to purchase goods that go along with living in a suburban lifestyle  Welfare capitalism –egalitarian liberalism. Social safety-net to compensate for capitalism (ie unemployment, shortage of housing and low income) Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography Globalized Captialism  1970’s onward  increasing globalization of economy  growing prevalence of transnational organizations results in declining role of national governments in managing capitalism  Finance capitalism =profits are derived from ownership of assets (including debt and rent) rather than Demographic Change  The size composition and rate of change Political Change  Politics is closely relatedto economic development  Karl Polanyi said liberal market (capitalism) is a planned development  Eg infrastructure, education, military protection Cultural Change  Cultural change and urbanization are closely intertwined  Example: housing preferences  Example: suburbanization Technological Change Enviornmental Change Social Change Assignment #1 Analysis of documentary film Full instructions are available on avenue to learn All films will be available in the reserve section of the library Also available on line Films: The Pruitt-Igoe Myth (2011) The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the collapse of the American Dream (2004) Urbanized (2011) Introduction/ intent of the film Hard copy/ electronic to avenue to learn Word limit 4 oages Due Monday feb 25 th Must use at least one scholarly source in analysis discussion January 17 2013 Agenda: 1. overview of phases of urban development 2. frontier urbanization 3. mercantile period (1790-1840) 4. early undustrial expansion and realignment Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography 5 phases 1. frontier urbanization: European colonization to (American) independence 2. mercantile period *1790-1840) local markets and central place 3. early industrial expansion and realignment 4. industrialization 5. Fordism  Seeing how technology influence development  Has affect on infrastructure development  Affects characteristics of these cities Frontier Urbanization  Exploration and settlement is driven by trade, demand for raw resources  Any settlement occurring this time was to facilitate trade  Development happening has strong connection happening to European cities Frontier Urbanization system  Early urban system operated as a string of gateway cities  Assembly of staple products for export  Distribution of imported manufactured goods  Civil administration of new territories  Entrepôts –places with natural port/trade advantages, develop into centers for the export and import of goods, dominate larger hinterlands  Storage and distribution centres  Comes from French word “to store”  Trade advantages because of location on the coast Entrepôt  Site –immediate physical environment, landscape characteristics  Situation –city’s position relative to other places  e.g. distance to other cities, accessibility to resources  Cities along the border between the piedmont and the Atlantic costal Mercantile Epoch (1790-1840)  Settlements associated with long distance trade become leading central places of the urban system  Growth concentrated in gateway cities –located at strategic points along rivers (e.g. new Orleans)  Infrastructure change: creation of canals that connected east coast merchants to these waterways via erie canal (1825)  Led to comparative advantage: local conditions allow a city or region to undertake an economic activity more efficiently compared to other possible activities Characteristics of the Mercantile City  Economy: based on long-distance trade  Sitye: located on navigable waterway at break in bulk point  Scale: small scale, easy to cross on foot Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography  Land use: compact shape, land uses not sorted, focus on waterfront  Situation: close ties hinterlands, weak ties to a few trading partners  cities remain quite small, pedestrian cities th  No form of public transportation until 19 century  Concentration of economic cities Mercantile Model 1. exploration model –search for economic opportunities for the old world 2. harvesting of natural resources –establishment of colonies for procurement and trade of natural resources (timber, beaver pelts) 3. emergence of farm-based staple production –colonization of land for grain Early industrial expansion  technological change:  arrival of industrial technology and commercial organization from Europe  gradual mechanization of agriculture improves agricultural activity and demanded diversified manufacturing support  higher levels of agricultural production enabled and required a diversification of labour  population change;  beginning in the 1840s, the US experience significant wave of immigration  wave of immigration and technology drive demand for agriculture activity  1850 in Canada 50,000 Canada in immigration  doesn’t experience first wave until much later in the 1800’s  first wave of immigrants are settling in rural areas, being invited to settle these areas in the West Canada: montreal  Canada Union (1840) and confederation (1847)  In 1840, montreal was a center of commerce and industry  Site: location on the st. Lawrence, at the rapids  Much younger country than US still in mindset of producing goods and sending to Britain Development of the Urban System  Transition from a mercantile system system of cities joined by industrial interests Infrastructure Development  Major changes: development of steam power riverboats and the railway  Cities develop at important transfer points Urban form and function Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography Urban growth was concentrated in esiting towns and cities This was in part due to original physical advantages Conditions of the Early Industrial City  Core: pedestrian  Land use: intense competition for land in the best locations (most accessible locations)  Development: still a free-for-all  Social stratification: development of new social groups –an industrial elite, white collar managers office workers, labourers and factory workers Horsecar Suburbs  Beginning of the movement of wealthy outside of city to escape conditions within the city st  1 wave of suburbanization  horsecare suburbs =built at the edge of pedestrian city at the terminus of horsecar routes  one of the major changes taking place in the cities, 1850 onwards  many believed that suburbs started after the war, this was an example proving it wrong  changes in transportation affecting changes in cities January 21 2013 location theory  the explanation and prediction of the location of individual and aggregate resources  a distinct field of study until 1980s  one of ways that urban geographers explain interconnectedness used theory of location Central Place Theory  developed by Walter Christaller in the 1930s  uses location theory as a basis for planning  makes predictions about the size and distribution of settlements with an urban system  Dominated economic geography until the 1950s, when it was replaced by Marxist approaches  Central place theory as justification of mass murder  Theory dominated economic and urban geography I) range: the maximum distance that people are willing to travel to obtain a particular good (consumer) II) threshold: the minimum volume of sales necessary for a viable establishment selling that good (business person)  in order to maximize utility retailers locate their establishments to be as near to their customers as possible visit the nearest centre Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography  Problems  Doesn’t take geography into account  Assumes everyone wants the same thing  An interesting theory, but does not fully explain urban patterns Cumulative Causation  The spiral of growth that occurs in specific settings like cities as a result of the built up of advantages of economies of scale, agglomeration economies, and localization economies  Explains why there are patterns in terms of urban hierarchy  Forward and backwards linkages  If you’re establishing a business, create a spin-off effect where you are deriving backward linkages from Effects of Cumulative Causation 1. local specialization becomes geared towards national rather than local markets 2. specialization provides the basis for increased commodity flows between the town and cities for the manufacturing belt, binding the region more tightly together  interconnectedness between cities of that region The Industrial City (1875-1920)  despite poor conditions, the overall standard of living increased for many people during this time  growth of the middle class and white collar work  beginning of labour union organization  larger differences between the poor and the rich  1890s, 10% of the population controlled 9-% of the wealth  awareness of conditions of the urban poor led to urban reform movements  becomes demand and awareness for government intervention in regards to the crisis of the poor Life in the Industrial City  fast growth  few social services or regulations  tenement housing (apartments where one family is living in one room)  health concerns  multicultural and ethnically organized  real problems with health conditions (cholera, air bourne disease) Changes in Urban Infracstructure  improvement in infrsastructure: lighting,, sewage, gas, streetcars, telephones,  electrification  steel frame skyscrapers construction Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography  cities becoame symbols of progress and distinct ubran ways of life developed  lot of development placed near street cars  some was organic Zoning  division of cities into land uses  permits or prohibits land uses in certain areas  grew out of racism  eg: discrimination against Chinese laundries in the 1880s  discrimination against Jewish garment manufacturers Core-Frame Model  The city is dominated by a high-density core (CBD) containing retail, office and civic zones  The frame contains zones of ware-housing, education facilities Land Values and Land Uses  Ground Rent (economic Rent)  Deriving value from profit from using land  Economic value you can derive from your land  Ulitity  All the possible uses you can have for a site  Highest and best use= the use that generates the highest possible rent Ie: landowner that owns land near transportation, derive most value from people who want to use the land to access transportation Hyt’s Secor Model 1. CBD 2. Wholesailing and ligh January 28 2013 Why is an understanding of economic processes so crucial to the study of urban geography? “Suburbanization: eighty percent of everything built in America has been built in the last fifty years and most if it is depressing, brutal, ugly, unhealthy and spiritually degrading” The US Suburban population grew from 26.% in 1950 to 49.8% in 2000  People have been trying to get out of central city for decades  See suburbanization really taking off  From 1950 to 2000 suburbs increases from 1960-1970 trend that has continued Suburbanization/Decentralization  Development of suburbs in North American metropolitan areas has greatly accelerated since the 1950s and the 1960s Geography 2UI3: Introduction to Urban Geography  At the same time, the urban system experiences regional decentralization Factors contributing to suburbanization 1. Transportation Number of cars on the road are increasing Number of cars increased by 70 millions between 1945-1972 Improved Road System  In 1956, the largest public works project in history begins in the US: the interstate highway act  Cost 32 billions  41000 miles of new highways built  the road system is developed according to the hub-and-spoke model 2. Social and Demographic Trends  High Fertility of the Baby Boom era raised the demand for housing  Large families demanded large homes  The Nuclear family replaced the extended family as the ideal  Prevailing model of male breadwinner and the women as homemakers 3. Availability of Housing  Govenrment programs make cheap, long term housing available to a large number of people  1944: servicemen’s readjustment act (GI Bill) created home insurance for returning servicemen  1949 Housing Act: Increased access to home insurance, investment in public housing as well as inner-city slum clearance 4. increased prosperity and changing preferences  between 1948 and 1973 the US economy grew  household income doubled  the 1950s media portrayed suburbs as the ideal American lifestyle Fordism  System of production for mass-consumption is transposed from the automobile assembly line to housing pro
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