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Lecture 7

GEOG 2UI3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Smart Key, Social Geography, Commuter Town


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2UI3
Professor
Robert Wilton
Lecture
7

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Lecture 7 – Foundation: Cities & Urban Form
Mercantile Cities
- Growing population of urban residents, but…
- Compact pedestrian cities
- Very high densities & overcrowding
- Relatively small cities, compact cities – transportation – walking
- Internal Geography
Centered on port (waterfront, warehouses, offices)
Hotels, churches, stores, wealthiest homes close by
Housing extended away from the core
Little separation of home & work
Residents and workplace are not differentiated
Wealthiest lived closest in the centre of the cities
- Social Geography
Elite at core, surrounded by “occupationally distinct but socially mixed quarters”, & poor
on fringe
Industrial Cities
- Social geography transformed by industrialization
But the transformation takes time to occur
Takes over several decades
- Shaped by:
Dominance of private real estate market
Absence of regulation on urban growth
Innovation in transportation
- The net effect is an inversion of locational prestige (soja 2000)
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- What’s driving inversion of locational prestige in industrializing of locations
- Several related developments facilitate this inversion
1. Industrialization changed the spatial organization of paid work
Separation of home and work (not 100% separation)
Relevant to women – women making money at home
Craftwork replaced by factory-based production
Water & steam power tied workers to machines
Detailed division of labour
2. Social status reorganized along class lines
Industrialization changed the ‘social relations of production’
Classes in industrial capitalism (Marx)
Bourgeoisie – focused on this (Marx) – company owners, etc.
Proletariat – working classes
Petit Bourgeoisie – small scale entrepreneurs
Reserve army – unemployed and put pressure on working class
3. Intense competition for land:
Corporations demand best (central) locations for factories, warehouses, offices
Elites and burgeoning middle-classes move out of the core (driver of
suburbanization)
Working-class have little power over residential location
Low incomes precluded commuting, better quality housing
Can’t afford to commute
Industrial Cities
Key role for transportation
- Horse cars (1829 - )
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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