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Lecture 3

GEOG 2UI3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Classical Liberalism, Service Economy, Neoliberalism


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2UI3
Professor
Robert Wilton
Lecture
3

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GEOG 2UI3 – Lecture 3 – Conceptualizing Urbanization Part II
The Process of Urbanization
- Cities are not perfect places to live
- Broad evolutions in the American Economy
An Evloving Capitalist Economy
1. Competitive Capitalism
- From late 1700s through 1860s
- Transition from pre-industrial (mercantile) to early industrial economy
Classic Free-Market Conditions – large number of small firms competing with one
another to build up in market share and succeed in this highly competitive environment
Smaller companies competing in local regional markets
- Politically: Classical Liberalism – Industrial growth, Little State Regulation, highly competitive
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2. Managed Capitalism
- 2a. ‘Organized Capitalism (1870s-1950s)
Corporate consolidation
State takes more active rold in economy
Early C.20th: Fordism = mass production & consumption
Increasing reliance on machinery & increasing mass consumption and production
- Politically: Egalitarian Liberalism
Government is taking care of people and making more regulations
Keynesianism
- 2b. Advanced Capitalism (1950s-1970s)
Relative importance of industrial production declines
Service economy
3. Globalized Capitalism
- 1970s – Onwards
- Global Economy
Transnational corporations operate at a scale beyond that of national governments and
labour unions
International Division of Labour
Deindustrialization in developed countries
‘Knowledge economy’ increasingly dominant
- Politically: neo-liberalism – new liberalism – return to older or reinvention of liberal ideas of less
government less regulation and more emphasis on market
- In reality, urbanization is not that neat
- Canadian vs. U.S Urbanization:
Extended mercantile period that affected Can. City growth
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Federal gov’t played stronger role in urban system
Economic influence of resource extraction
- Multiple processes shape urbanization
- Not just economies that create cities
Processes Driving Urbanization
- Demographic Change
Size & Composition of Urban Populations
Migration/Immigration
Extent to which Canadian population is sustained by immigration
Without immigration we would not be growing as much as a population
- Political Change
Keynesian welfare state in post-war period
Recent move toward neo-liberal “entrepreneurial politics”
Neo-liberal – greater dependence on market forces
- Cultural Change
Suburban growth driven by economics and culture
Cultural Diversity in cities
Creativity
- Technological Change
Construction
Transportation
Ex. Elevator
- Social Change
Changing gender roles
- None of these processes is really independent of the others (Mitchell 2000, p.14)
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