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Lecture

GEOG 3EE3 Lecture Notes - Lignin, Gasification, Biodiesel


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 3EE3
Professor
Maureen Padden

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of 2
Biomass:
- Total input = 6.5 million kcal
- Total output = 19 million kcal
Biofuels: crop based fuels
Corn
Ethanol
Sugar cane
Ethanol
Algae
Biodiesel
Palm oil
Biodiesel
Cooking oil
Biodiesel
Wood , plants
Direct burn
Harvest in the winter nutrients pulled back into roots
Perennials: low water and fertilizer inputs
- Poly culture not monoculture
- Late harvest increased biodiversity
Hot acid bath problem:
Hot acid is used to Strip away a tough molecule called lignin causes microorganisms to
get at the cellulose
o Energy intensive and corrosive
Ethanol:
- Distilled from 80% water
- Need heat energy
- Must be >10% ethanol or it is corrosive to car engines
- Toxic to microorganisms
Biomass Gasification in Hamilton:
675 Strathearne Ave
o Uses biosolids (sludge) and biomass to produce fuel
Geothermal:
Hot, Dry Rock System:
- Water injected in one well and out a neighbouring one
- Hydraulic fracturing
- Binary fluid cycle heat pump
- Second fluid turns turbine
Enhanced Geothermal systems:
Pressurized water is injected into deep wells
Works even without magma
If not hot enough heat pump or other liquid is used
Issues:California
- Output is decreasing
- Water is being removed faster than it is being replaced
In Canada mostly domestic use
Horizontal
Cheaper than vertical
Up to 100m length
Vertical
closed loop
Open loop
uses an aquifer contamination issues