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Lecture 30

GEOG 3RW3 Lecture 30: Geography 3RW3 - Lecture 30 - Pakistan: Part 2

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Segei Basik

Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 1 Lecture 30 – Thursday March 19 Pakistan: Part 2 Introduction: Challenges th • Socio-economic underdevelopment: 146 out of 186 countries (2013, Human Development Index); 22% of population lives on less than US $1.25 per day • Regional disparities • Kashmir problem and Pakistan – India relationships: high level of defense spending • Balance between democratic reforms and Islamic state • The rise of nationalism – a significant threat to regional and global peace and security • Main Problems o Environmental issues (water scarcity, natural disasters) o Sectarian Violence and Religious Intolerance/Fundamentalism o Terrorism Environmental Issues • Natural Factors o 1. 8 out of 197 countries with highest exposure to natural hazards o 2. Tectonic boundary/seismic belt o 3. Climate change: continuous dry conditions – prolonged droughts o 4. Unexpected heavy rains and excessive floods and landslides • Socio-Economic Factors o 1. Unplanned development in hazard prone areas; o 2. Poor construction practices and communication infrastructure o 3. High poverty and high rate of illiteracy o 4. Lack of early warning systems and lack of preparedness and planning o 5. Limited institutional and organizational capacity for disaster management Water Scarcity • Pakistan is one of the most “water-stressed” countries in the world • Water availability of 1,000 cubic meters per person per year (like Ethiopia) • Reasons: a combination of climate change consequences (melting glaciers, decreasing rainfall) and chronic mismanagement by successive governments • Inadequate water storage facilities (only 9% of freshwater is stored in reservoirs, in India – 30%) • India-Pakistan wate
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