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Lecture 4

GEOG 3RW3 Lecture 4: Geography 3RW3 - Lecture 4 - Geological Structures and Relief: Part 2

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McMaster University
Segei Basik

Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 1 Lecture 4 – Monday January 12 Geological Structures and Relief: Part 2 Introduction • Enormous layer of basaltic rock (comes from volcanic eruption) • Seen in Southern India • Picture of dinosaurs and volcanic eruption = 60 million years ago dinosaurs went extinct Geomorphology and Geomorphic Regions • There are three major landform regions in South Asia: o Outer Mountain Wall o Northern Plain (Indus-Gangetic Plain) o Peninsular India o The islands in the Indian Ocean can be considered as a geomorphic region 1. Outer Mountain Wall • Geomorphic Region o The geomorphic region includes mountains: The Himalayas, The Karakoram, The Hindu Kush • The Himalayan Mountains o Dominate the physical landscapes in the northern region of South Asia o Not going to talk about Tibet but always consider it a part of East Asia when talking about physical geography o Himalaya = “abode of snow” (Sanskrit) o The sub region = a home to all 14 of the earth’s peaks > 8 km o Image: The Great Himalayan Rang in Central Nepal o Mount Everest is the tallest peak in the world – 8848 m o Other names: ▪ 1) Chomolungma (Holy Mother of the Universe – Tibetan) ▪ 2) Sagarmatha (Head of the Sky – Nepali) ▪ Image: Kumbu Valley and Mount Everest • The Himalayan Geomorphic Regions o Tibetan Marginal Chain (Trans-Himalayas) o Inner Himalayan Valleys o High Central Himalayan Chain o Midlands and Lesser Himalayas (Mahabharat Chain) o Pre-Himalayas and Terai (Siwalik Chain) • The Karakoram Range o Is about 500km in length o The most heavily glaciated part of the world outside the polar regions nickname “The Third Pole” o Glacier Siachen is the second longest in the non-polar region (about 79km long) o Glaciers in the Karakorum are more stable than other regions Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 2 o Mount K-2 (or Chogori – Balti language “big mountain”) in Karakoram is the second highest in the world (8611m) ▪ We could see geopolitics issues from this view? • Image o The Karakoram Highway is the world’s highest altitude paved international road. Its 1200km slice through the Karakoram Range from Pakistan to China passing through some of the world’s most remarkable mountain scenery 2. The Northern Plain • Northern Plain o The Northern (or Indus-Gangetic) Plain is an upside down U shaped area – from The Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal (area is about 700 000 square km –3000km long, 300 km wide) o Located in tectonic pre-Himalayan flexure o The Northern Plain is a flat accumulative lowland (about 150 above sea level) o It is an alluvial floodplain formed by the fluvial accumulative deposits up to several km deep (up to 8km in Bangladesh) o Anthropogenic neo-relief: is a typical characteristic of the Norther
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