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Lecture 25

GEOG 3RW3 Lecture 25: Geography 3RW3 - Lecture 25 - India: Part 1

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Segei Basik

Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 1 Lecture 25 – Monday March 9 India: Part 1 Introduction [don't have to know numbers for exam] • Image o Indian festival “Holi” o “Victory to the ruler of people’s mind and dispenser of India’s destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravida, Odisha and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the India Sea” o Rabindranath Tagore – Noble Prize Winner in Literature in early 20 century • India o Area: 3,287,263 sq km (#7 in the world; about 75% of South Asian region) o Population: more than 1,240,000,000 (2014, # 2 in the world) o Capital: New Delhi o Government system: Federal Republic o Largest democracy in the world (in regards to population) o The largest state by population with democratically elected government o Official Name: Republic of India (local – Bharat) Physical Geography • Physical Geography = India dominates in South Asia – all regional geologic, geomorphic, and bio-climatic regions • The highest point – Mt. Kanchenjunga (#3 in the world) – 8598m • According to Conservation International, India is one of the mega-diverse countries (seventeen countries that have the majority of the Earth's species) India: Political Map • India organized as a federal state (29 states and 7 union territories) • The largest states in area: Rajasthan (more than 342,000 square km), Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra • Goa is the smallest state (about 2,700 square km) • State governments formally control o Agriculture o Education o Law and order within states • Dependent on central government for funds • Following ethno-linguistic patterns, but currently – other criteria Federalism and New States: Modern Patterns and Criteria Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 2 • New states created in 2000: Chhattisgarh, Uttarkhand (former Uttaranchal), Jharkhand (reconstituted Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, respectively) • Chhattisgarh: o The division is rooted in caste distinctiveness (upper peasant Brahmins leading the movement) o Disproportionate contribution in revenues (rich in mineral resources and an important rice-producer) • Uttarkhand: o Long-voiced demands for a separate state based on cultural, social (caste: heavily Brahmin, with comparatively few of the "backward castes”), and economic distinctiveness • Jharkhand: o A fifty-year struggle for creation of a heavily tribal state o New state takes 65% of revenue (coal and steel industry) of Bihar – India’s second most populous state o “The youngest
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