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The Civil Wars.docx

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Graeme Ward

The Civil Wars 14/03/2013 12:49:00 PM Trends from the late republic 1. Increasingly weakedned senate 2. Personal connection between commander and soldiers o Veteran settlements 3. Unprecedented aristocratic competition and conflict o Marius o Sulla o Pompey (20 when he first commanded) Sources  Cicero 1. Letters, speeches  Plutarch 1. Caesar, Pompey, Cato  Caesar 1. Commentaries  Gallic Wars, Civil Wars C. Julius Caesar  gens Julii 1. b. 100 BCE 2. popularis (Marius, Cornelia)  63: Pontifex Maximus 1. Crassus  63: Catilinarian revolt 1. clementia (mercy)  61: governor of Further Spain 1. 60: returns for triumph First “Triumvirate”  60: Caesar also wishes to be consul 1. Cato and optimates block him  Pompey 1. Settle veterans, ratify eastern settlements  Crassus 1. Help publicani recoup losses 2. Wanted them to bail out his friends  The three men are frustrated with the senate so they form the power of three  Caesar becomes the consul, pompey has people, Crassus has moey Caesar’s Consulship (59)  M. Calpurnius Bibulus  filibuster, auspices 1. Bibulus confined to his house  If he ever came out of his house, pompey will dump shit on him (basically under house arrest for the reamiander of this console) 2. Bills pushed through  Pompey marries Julia 1. Julia- Caesar’s only daughter  Caesar to be governor of Cisalpine, Transalpine Gauls (both Gauls, northern Italy and southern France) 1. 5 year term (while he is gone he asks someone to look after for him)  P. Clodius Pulcher (Tribune in 58) 1. Free grain ration (this makes his popularity unchallenged) 2. Law regarding inflicting capital punishment (Cicero) 3. Essentially a gang member Renewal of Triumvirate  57: Pompey has Cicero recalled  56: Meeting of triumvirate at Luca 1. Caesar’s command in Gaul extended 5 years 2. Cassus: Syria  complain against Parthia Pompey: Spain  In charge of grain supply at Rome  Remains in rome (governs through legati)  People will govern in his name (he cannot rule Spain when he is in Rome) Caesar in Gaul (58-51)  Caesar’s Commentarii  58: Germanii  56-55: Belgium, Brittany  54: Britain  52: Revolt of Gauls 1. Vercingetorix 2. Battle of Alesia End of Triumvurate  53: Cassus campaigning against Parthians 1. Balle of Carrhae 2. 30 000 killed, loss of the eagles  52: Clodius killed in a gang fight 1. Senate House becomes funeral pyre 2. Pompey made sole consul 3. Death of Julia  Caesar’s alliance is dead Buuild up to Civil War  50: Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul 1. declares candidacy for consulship in absentia 2. M. Antonius made tribune for 49  January 49: Senate declares Caesar hostis
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