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3. 1M03 Jan 13, 2014

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Sean Corner

3. January 13, 2014 Recap: -earliest of state level civilizations - Minoan of Crete - Mycenaean of Greece -warrior class, emergence of tholos tombs, emergence of palaces ▯above are evidence to prove the gradual evolution of human society as discussed in last lecture Palace of Mycenaean -enormous wall -later greeks forgotten about bronze age use myth of cyclops as explanation -cyclopian masonry ▯ why build such an enormous wall? not needed with the low level of warfare during the bronze age -defending spears not bombs ▯ display of wealth, display of control (to gather the man power to build them), psychological dominance the palace has over them and the dependency that the population has on that palace - times of warfare population enters palace for protection ▯ Remember: Minoan palaces suffered excessive destruction (except Knossos) in the 1500s. ▯ Mycenaean society influence by Minoan culture: architecture, art, pottery, clothing, etc. ▯ Evans (discovered Knossos) suggested that the Minoans colonized Greece and it is they who built these Greek palaces that resemble so closely the ones in Minoan. At this time we find clay tablets bearing writing in a script that is very similar to the Linear A found at Minoan - Linear B Linear B found in Knossos and Mycenaean - taken from Crete and brought to Myc Ventris & Chadwicj (1951-53): decipher Linear B for writing Greek ▯ Learn the script had developed from Minoan writing, but the language was not Minoan, it was Greek. ▯ Mycenaean Greeks sacked and colonized Minoan Crete: took over Knossos, replaced the Minoans as principle Aegean power (trade, import/export etc.) now third great power of the ancient world (egyptians, anatolia) Now: Greek Rulers in Crete and Greek rulers in Greece ▯ Now we can read Mycenaean documents ▯administrative records Kingdom of Pylos c.1200 -know of a centralized power-a king- title is wanax - head of hierarchy of palace officials -officials collect taxes, raise labour levees, and also hold religious control, and military affairs - war and protection of state -reveal to us the civilization at its height and also its sudden dramatic downfall -1200bc palaces suffer destruction at their height. -1200-1500bc some survive and continue, some recover and come back 3. January 13, 2014 -1150-1100bc all palaces decline and are abandoned palace civilization of bronze age Greece is gone ▯ So what happened?? Collapse of Mycenaean palaces is part of the late bronze age colapse - a region wide time of catastrophe -in Anatolia palaces collapse and are wiped out -Egypt continues -period of instability and chaos - suffers a series of raids and destruction -what was happening? still not totally known -scholars think not one single cause - coincidence of multiple pr
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