3. January 13, 2014
-earliest of state level civilizations - Minoan of Crete - Mycenaean of Greece
-warrior class, emergence of tholos tombs, emergence of palaces
▯above are evidence to prove the gradual evolution of human society as discussed in last lecture
Palace of Mycenaean
-later greeks forgotten about bronze age use myth of cyclops as explanation
why build such an enormous wall?
not needed with the low level of warfare during the bronze age
-defending spears not bombs
display of wealth, display of control (to gather the man power to build them), psychological
dominance the palace has over them and the dependency that the population has on that palace -
times of warfare population enters palace for protection
Remember: Minoan palaces suffered excessive destruction (except Knossos) in the 1500s.
Mycenaean society inﬂuence by Minoan culture: architecture, art, pottery, clothing, etc.
Evans (discovered Knossos) suggested that the Minoans colonized Greece and it is they who built
these Greek palaces that resemble so closely the ones in Minoan.
At this time we ﬁnd clay tablets bearing writing in a script that is very similar to the Linear A found
at Minoan - Linear B
Linear B found in Knossos and Mycenaean - taken from Crete and brought to Myc
Ventris & Chadwicj (1951-53): decipher Linear B for writing Greek
Learn the script had developed from Minoan writing, but the language was not Minoan, it was
Mycenaean Greeks sacked and colonized Minoan Crete: took over Knossos, replaced the Minoans
as principle Aegean power (trade, import/export etc.) now third great power of the ancient world
Now: Greek Rulers in Crete and Greek rulers in Greece
Now we can read Mycenaean documents
Kingdom of Pylos c.1200
-know of a centralized power-a king- title is wanax - head of hierarchy of palace ofﬁcials
-ofﬁcials collect taxes, raise labour levees, and also hold religious control, and military affairs - war
and protection of state
-reveal to us the civilization at its height and also its sudden dramatic downfall
-1200bc palaces suffer destruction at their height.
-1200-1500bc some survive and continue, some recover and come back 3. January 13, 2014
-1150-1100bc all palaces decline and are abandoned
palace civilization of bronze age Greece is gone
So what happened??
Collapse of Mycenaean palaces is part of the late bronze age colapse - a region wide time of
-in Anatolia palaces collapse and are wiped out
-Egypt continues -period of instability and chaos - suffers a series of raids and destruction
-what was happening? still not totally known
-scholars think not one single cause - coincidence of multiple pr