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13. 1M03 Feb 26, 2014.pdf

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McMaster University
Sean Corner

13. February 26, 2014 Where we left off: ▯ greek history from bronze to end of hellenistic period ▯ Italy and Rome ▯ -earliest formation of cities and states in egypt and near east -greek state formation in the late BC -italy state formation began in 750BC - archaic period recall: greece at this time was in the period of renaissance - growth of pop. and social complexity - the rise of the greek polis 750-480BC city states arising and developing in Etruria, Latium, and Campania central western coastal areas of the italian peninsula recall: dif btwn city state and polis -city state designates scale (small state w one urban centre and surrounding country side) and not a kind of political organization ▯ city-states in forming in Italy -from 750 on we begin to see differentiation in burial -graves of few people becoming much grander, wealthier goods -in other graves armour and weaponry -in terms of social development this tells us of a formation of a warrior class and some form of elite -from 700 on there is the beginning of urbanism - as pop. concentrates inner centres so does this elite that has appeared begin to centre themselves in these towns -beginning of social differentiation -600BC on appearance of public buildings - in particular grand temples -indicates that emergent cities were also the political centres of emergent states -also emergence of more elaborate state fortifications ▯ What kind of city state in terms of system of gov’t? -wealthy elite, states -sociopolitical stratification - to what degree did dif levels of status and wealth transfer over into political hierarchy and government -in the case of the archaic central italian states had gov’t that were monopolized by a small group of aristocratic families - monarchy - hereditary ruling dynasty -these states while rivals of their neighbours also identified as sharing a broader culture affinity - common religion, language, festivals etc. ▯ -in southern italy the two worlds-itlaian and greek- meet -greeks arent just forming polis in greek itself but also colonizing along the southern coast of the itlaian peninsula -greek culture had a strong influence on these developing italian city states -ex: system of writing - latins and etruscans adopted the greek script to use for writing down their own languages ▯ -early stages: villages of roman hills coming together to form a larger and more organized community 13. February 26, 2014 -one way in which organization put to use was in draining the marshes - low area between the hills - turned into common area - a civic and religious centre known as the Forum Romanum -raised temples, civic buildings -in c. 600 the temple of jupitor optimus maximus on Capitoline -by this time the pop. had spread across the entire area of the hills making rome at that time one of the largest cities in italy -like other archaic city states in central Italy rome was also a monarchy proof - two roman inscriptions from 625 with the term rex (king in latin) -building
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