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14. 1M03 March 3, 2014.pdf

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Sean Corner

14. March 3, 2014 Last Lecture: first couple of centuries of the roman republic were characterized by a great deal of social conflict -patricians vs plebeians -over time struggle of the order was resolved -one thing that helped easing the conflict at home was conflict abroad -the waging of external war provided a uniting front for all Romans ▯ end of 4th century rome was engaging in regular warfare every year -chief office was to wage war -a successful aristocratic career in rome meant a successful military career. winning battles, gaining plunder, etc. -the army was a civic militia - citizens called up to fight for one season of the year -leave farms for one month to go and fight and then come back when good farming time again -citizens gained from the wars and their conquests: plots of captured land or other spoils - gained materially or economically -elite stood to win honour, glory, and office -wealth that came into rome from expansion eleveated the conditions of the poor and so elieviated social strife and contentions -provided mutuality and consensus building ▯ Rise of Rome: steady expansion from city state in central italy to ruler of the mediteranean ▯ 5th and 4th century -cities of the western coast were managed by the Samnite peoples highland people -coastal city states (rome) were constantly at threat from raids by these highland peoples -First Samnite War (343-341) -rome came up on top -Latin War (341-338) - war between rome and other latin city states -rome prevailed and this saw her gain domination over the whole of the latin world -romans turned most of these cities into municipal (sng. municipium) -they retained local self gov’t but their citizenship was merged with roman citizenship -either full citizenship or partial -ost dependence in foreign policy and were required to provide soldiers to fight in domes army -rome also confiscated some of the territory of the defeated latin states and est. colonial communities (called coloniae) ▯ point to grasp: a distinctive feature of roman policy at this period is that rome did not receive direct financial benefit - did not require tribute - instead required man power to populate army to continue expansion ▯ 326- 304 - second samnite wars 289-90 - third samnite war -victories in these wars allowed rome domination of western italy and also of communities of campania and central highlands ▯ how had rome gained control of campania? they had started out as domes allies in the samnite war -was an unequal alliance in which the companions were increasingly dependent on rome and subordinate to roman power 14. March 3, 2014 -this expansion of rome and control over campania marked a shift in roman policy with respect to conquest -campanians were not turned into municipal but remained allies - not granted roman citizenship or incorporated into the roman state - were able to mania in local autonomy -as dependent and subject allies their foreign policy came to be subject to rome too -forced to provide soldiers -soldiers they sent to fight for rome didn't fight in the same units as the roman soldiery but had their own units ▯ city states and developed in parallel in italy rome, latia, and etruria etruria sided with wrong ppl in the other wars -280s-270s: war with etruscans and set to same allied status as campania -expanding north (etrusccan) and south (greek and lucanians) at the same time -some greek city satiates began looking to rome for assistance in their conflicts with the lucanians -some greek cities happy for help but at the same time worried and fearful of roman domination -Tarentum a greek city appeals to Pyrrhus, the king of molossiand - leader of epirus - to come help them against roman domination -so begins the pyrrhic war (280-275) -pyrrhus greco-macedonia pharynx proved superior to romes and they defeated the romans at Heraclea and Asculum -high casualty rates on both sides -but romans were on their own peninsula and with all of there municipal and allies co
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