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Iberian Expansion.pdf (Lecture)

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Megan Armstrong

Iberian Expansion : Factors • Expansion of European water , manifestation and changes in Europe o Iberian peninsula , signs of centralized kingdoms , § Rise of modern states • Economic recovery , post plague o Trade is recovering , money to be had o Social rising , wanted the luxuries § Spices and silks • Competition over spice trade • Emergence of more centralized states • Humanism ( Ptolemy , Strabo ) and navigation changes The Spice trade competition • Competition for the markets , especially the spice trade • Most lucrative o Highth desired o 11 century growing demand § peppers , ginger , hard spices , § silk from china ú brought by Greek merchants ú goods of luxuries • Venetians and Genoese o Up to 13 thcentury , venetians were the most important middle man , Most active and cosmopolitan port . Traders from all over came to that port o 13 th and 14 thGenoese and venetians are competing for trade • Maco Polo o Made aware of exotic places • Portuguese o Costal port , competing to be middle man with venetians and Genoese o Competition for spice trade § Extremely lucrative § Large mark up values o Wanted to cut through middle man o Very active in the 1450’s • Spanish o Growing in size , wanted to prove • Ottomans o Conquering previously stabling Muslim nations o Pushed there way through eastern European § Under ottoman influence § Power player in spice trade Navigation and shipbuilding • Medieval maps : T-O (Jerusalem) ; Portolan o Look at world differently • Classical learning : Ptolemy , Geographic o Understanding of geography , went back to the Greeks to build on knowledge Mediterranean became a dangerous place • More players • Technological innovations : astrolabe, compass , hinged rudder • Portolan map o Practical map o Drawn and added upon by sailors, costal pas § Indication of ports and harbors ú Mark out rocks o Go out on journey and mark the coast line • T-O o Jerusalem centric map § Spiritual map , based on the bible § Jerusalem in the middle o Typical map Portuguese Exploration • Henry the Navigator (d 1460) : School for seamen o Kings brother o Never ruler , fascinated with learning of the day. Humanistic education § Ancient literature o Fascinated by geographic knowledge o Brought the most educated navigator and Greek scholars to plan a route around Africa § Build more sophisticated maps • Alfonso V (D. 1481) an Joao ii (d 1495) • Vasco da Gama , India (1498) o Made it all the way to Calcutta o Made it to spice trade o Regular stream of ships from Portugal o Become basis of income for Po
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