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McMaster University
Stephen Heathorn

The period of Terror: July 1793-July 1794 *death of Marat, rise of Robespierre - July 1793 *law of suspects -revolutionary justice *extension of the law of the maximum *’rational’ domestic reforms: -a new calendar (year I-1972) - the day the Republic is claimed is when it starts, new names for each month (30 days each month - 3 weeks of 10 days) -weights and measures (the metric system) -Cult of the Supreme Being (Temples of Reason); June 8, 1794 festival of the Supreme Being -> the world was created by a higher being but that didn’t necessarily mean they watched over it -Danton didn’t feel people needed to be executed anymore, in favour of public safety - Robespierre disagreed -end of the terror saw French military victories and declining support for Robespierre (who is sent to his death (July 1794) *Pulling back: -the Thermidorian Coup and the Directory 1794-1799 (after Robespierre’s death) -brought about a new constitution -new system of government with system of directors - legislation would keep the directors in check -had to be saved by force - the French army came in and fired on a crowd to save the government -the leader of this military action was Napoleon Bonaparte *Summary analysis of the revolution - 4 phases: 1. Liberal Revolution 1789-1792: -government form: National Assembly -liberal dominated, want individual rights (for men) -end of the Ancien Regime and remaining feudal privaledges -the “people” (mostly middle-class) become important in politics -rise of liberal civic values and rights -political and administrative reforms -”liberty” 2. Republican Revolution 1792-1793: -government form: the National Convention -formation of a republic and execution of the King -create national army and idea of a nation in arms -rise of nationalist politics -re-centralization of government and administrations -”fraternity” 3. Radical Revolution 1793-1794: -government form: Committee of public safety -social democracy - bringing the masses into politics -attempted implementation of Rousseau’s “general will” -radical social experimentation (new cale
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