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2S03 Lecture November 20.docx

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Martin Horn

2S03 Lecture November 20 – WWII: Total War – Occupation in Western Europe Radically different from Eastern Europe - In particular, resistance to occupation Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium Luxembourg, France Vidkun Quisling – pro German in Norway Marshal Petain – Vichy, France – Vichy regime headed by Petain – Petain believed the Third Republic was disgusting - New Order was a chance to remake and purify France – Nazi triumph not necessarily unwelcome – that said, the open collaborationists were a small group Open resistance also a small group What resistance was and how it developed – France as an example (largest, most varied resistance) Ambiguous term Who were they? What constitutes resistance? - Not in one single socio-econ. Class – wc, peasantry, upper class - Certain kinds were more likely to participate - Railway workers – unusually high partic. In resistance - Printers as well - Beyond that, there’s a faint identification with elite groups – not particularly strong or marked - Gender? Men more likely to participate but women do too. No clarity here either - Religion – no. - Rural-urban divide is not there either - Active resistance, passive resistance - Active: what you see in bad Hollywood movies 1. Intelligence gathering: finding out what you can about German units, placement, movement, strength, very rarely about German intentions – relayed to London 2. 2. Escape networks: downed Allied airmen used these – took them away and transported them through a neutral back to the UK; political opponents of the Germans; Jews – in certain places, they had a major effect like in Denmark – population only 8000 – when Germans moved against them, the Germans only got 570 – Danish resistance ferreted the rest away (unusual, exceptional but did occur) 3. 3. Sabotage: can be anything from factory-based deliberate faulty production to blowing up railway lines – 1943, combination of B and Norwegians blew up a heavy water plant to stop German research into atomic warfare – brought reprises (open costs); many people don’t like sabotage because they’re at risk of being punished for other people’s actions - Not open warfare like in the East – terrain does not allow it like in Yugoslavia - Passive resistance: strikes; demonstrations; work to rule; nonviolent; aims to hurt Germans in a way that leaves violence out of the picture – Netherlands is flat. Dutch have massive strikes in 41 43 and 44 – embarrassing to the Germans and has an economic cost - 1941 Gs allow the Luxembourg, France to vote on if they wanted to join – 97% said no - Surprisingly effective - 1944 – before Allies landed in France, bombed France for months in advance – resistance joined in the sabotage - Studies after the war show that the work to rule campaign of French railway workers that impacted the most economically - It also is not about its costs – in 1944, SS division Das Reich making its way across France – frustrated by passive and active resistance – annihilated several villages With France occupied, it is a good case study – geography is varied, Vichy is a government that supports the Third Reich Milice Francaise – Joseph Darnand – Vichy’s paramilitary force - From 1944, wars openly with the French resistance - F civil war - When F was overrun, most of the F were willing to give Petain a chance (national hero, well known, thought it was the time to remake France) Mer-El-Kebir July 1940 – B navy fearing that F would surrender parts of her navy to G, sank various F ships and killed more than 1500 F sailors – on top of F thinking B ran away at Dunkirk - Sowed doubts in F minds about B De
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