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Lecture 7

History – Lecture 7 Notes.docx

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Bonny Ibhawoh

History – February 26 , 2013h Decolonization in Africa and the Middle East  Two ways to instigate a revolution: violence and non-violence Background  Study Guide Reminder: o Begin earl: start reading novels/start thinking about assignments o Focus on understanding Key Concepts and Ideas o Key thematic arguments/debates o Specific Examples (Case studies) o Discuss Tutorial Questions  Timelines: The era of colonialism in Africa and the ME: 1900-1960s  Geography: Where are Africa and the Middle East? (Map) o Didn’t used to be so many boundaries in Africa o Was more open not split into as many countries  Themes: o Western domination o Anti-colonial nationalism o African/Arab nationalism o Turmoil and chaos o Decolonization and independence Colonialism and Decolonization in the Middle East  Impact of the World War I: Strategic Allied support for Arab nationalism o Arab revolt weaken Ottoman Rule o Wanted to keep Suez Canal open for trade o European promised Arabs a lot of things  Conflicting Wartime Agreements in the Middle East: o Secret correspondence of 1915: Britain pledge support for independence Arab state in return for Arab support o Would ensure Arab independence if Arab people supported the war against the Ottoman Empire o Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916: Secret commitment to divide the Ottoman Empire among European nations o The Balfour Declaration 1917: British support for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine o British people expressed commitment to support the vision of the Jewish state, Palestine  Tutorial Readings: conflicting Middle East Agreements: Spot the contradictions o Letter from Sherif Husayn of Mecca to Sir H. McMahon 1915 o Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 o The Balfour declaration  Legacies of the Conflicting Agreements  The British view: o Means to strengthen war effort against eh Central Powers o Enlarge imperial holdings in the Middle East after the war Colonial
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