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Lecture 8

History – Lecture 8-12 Lecture Notes.docx

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Bonny Ibhawoh

History – March 1 , 2013 Anti-Colonial Nationalism in Kenya  Tutorial Reading: “Jomo Kenyatta, Suffering Without Bitterness: The Founding of the Kenya Nation” o “If you woke up one morning and found that somebody had come to your house, and had declared that house belonged to him, you would naturally be surprised, and you would like to know by what arrangement. Many Africans at that time found that, on land which had been in the possession of their ancestors from time immemorial, they were not working as squatters or as labourers.” Nationalism and Resistance in Africa  African sense of entitlement for war contributions  The rise of Western educated elite class  Nationalist Demands: National Congress of British West Africa  Brutality and repression in the Belgian Congo (King Leopold) o In some colonies there was no violence, very peaceful o Belgian colonies were terrible and very violent o Way colonialism evolved effected the way the decolonization process happened o The more violent colonies had more violent decolonization processes o Was not just about colonizers and colonized o Some people benefitted from colonial powers  Multiracial Tensions in British East Africa – Kenya, Uganda  Kenya (Mau Mau) – Case Study in Racial and class divisions – British, white settlers, Indians and Africans o “Weep Not, Child” o Main characters vision of colonialism was different o Different to make a distinction between settlers who saw themselves as Africans and colonizers who still viewed Britain as their home  Nationalism and White Settler Rule in Southern Africa: o Portuguese settler colonies of Angola and Mozambique o British settlers in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe): British-held Rhodesia  Pan-Africanism: Movement by leaders in Africa and in the African Diaspora to foster a sense of identity and belonging among all people of African ancestry o Overwhelming tension was racial o Was also other tensions o Wanted to break down boundaries in Africa Racial and Political Divisions in South Africa  Difference between South Africa and Southern Africa  17 Century Dutch (Afrikaner) settlers and later British Colonizers o  1889-1902: Anglo-Boar War  Rise of Afrikaner (white South Africans of Dutch origin) nationalism  Racial segregationist policies  The Apartheid System 1948  Racial categorization and hierarchies  Political exclusion and disfranchisement  Pass laws  African (Bantu) homelands – Bantustans (Reserves)  Economic/Social inequalities  Black Nationalism: The African National Congress of South Africa (ANC)  Resistance to Apartheid o People began to abandon non-violence after the tipping point o Mandela abandons non-violence in South Africa because he does not think it will work o Has to be ethics in violence o Idea changes once he realizes non-violence will not work  1960 Sharpeville Massacre Independent Africa  1950-1970s: Era of political independence  Negotiated colonization in British West Africa: Gold Coat (Ghana); Nigeria o National promises did not happen o Became the start of a whole new conflict o Vision nationalists hoped for did not happen  Emergence of new states: Arbitrary colonial boundaries  Minority question: Ethnic and religious minorities within the new nation states  Tension between Western and Indigenous cultures  Protracted guerrilla “wars of liberation” in settler colonies: Rhodesia, Angola, Mozambique  The role of women in the struggle for independence  Fragile states and military dictatorships  Pan-African Unity Movements: The Organization of African Unity (OAU)  African Union th History – March 5 , 2013 Normal Rockwell: Four Freedoms  Captured normalcy of every day life  Used images people were used to  Most famous for four freedoms: 1. Freedom of speech 2. Freedom of worship 3. Freedom from want o People have enough food to eat o Have social and economic rights 4. Freedom from fear Latin America  Dictatorships and Struggles for Political and economic rights  Armed rebellions and guerrilla movements 1960s  Religious dimension to revolution in South America  Liberation Theology: The Roman Catholic Church and the Social Justice Movement o Not Christianity of turning the other cheek o Christianity that talked about peaceful but firm change o Jesus Christ is represented as a revolutionary, someone who demanded change o Ultimate violence is poverty o Element of political change in South America: was able to tap into religion as a basis for mobilizing the people  Demographic Explosion and Urbanization  Deplorable Social Conditions: o Groff Reading: Carolina Maria de Jesus, Life and Death in the Garbage Dump  US doctrine of national security and militarism in Latin America o Thought that role of south American countries was to produce for the US o Owned parts of Latin America o Used for production of products to sell in US (sugar, etc.)  Promise of FDR’s “Four Freedoms”  US dominance and Economic Dependency o Latin America thought they need to break free of US o Was crucial for South America to break free from Economic Dependency on US in order to be economically developed  Economic nationalism vs. liberal economic reforms: dependency theory  Readings: focus on one country (ex. Brazil, Guatemala, Columbia) Dictatorships and Political Instability in Latin America  Struggles for Political Reforms: Ruling Aristocratic classes vs. Populist coalition of reformers  Guatemala: Populist reforms and US interference  Columbia: o Liberal vs. Conservative parties o Leftist guerrilla groups vs. right-Wing paramilitary groups  Bolivia: o Populist reforms and us interference o The Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR)  Brazil: o Industrial Growth and Economic Crisis, Military Coup and the Security State o 1964 Military Coup  Argentina: Populist Politics, economic crisis, military coup and the “Dirty War”  20 century was a period in which these societies were going through important political and social transformations  Were happening at the point of global and ideological tension  Shapes how political revolutions and change evolved in Latin America The Cuban Revolution 1959  Significant episode in the Cold War  US intervention in the Cuban War of Independence  Batista dictatorship, Mass poverty and US economic influence o Corruption of the Batista regime o Pro-American regime o Before revolution Cuban economy served American interests more than it served Cuban interests  Fidel Castro’s’ Guerrilla Movement and overthrow of the Batista Regime (Ernesto Che Guevara): o 26 July Movement inspired by Russian and Chinese Revolutions  Castro’s Reforms & Conflict with US Interests  Cold War Politics: Cuba/Soviet Alliance: o Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 o America could deal with revolution in far away countries o Cuban revolution was right in backyard of America o Successful communist revolution in America’s backyard would begin a domino affect o Soon all of Latin America would be communist and fight back o From the beginning there were very strong efforts to stop the revolution  Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961  Emigration and Exile of Cuban Elites  Political Repression & social/economic advancement  Exporting Communist Revolution: Revolutionary hero Ernesto Che Guevara  Tutorial reading: “Che Guevara’s Failed Bolivian Uprising.” th History – March 8 , 2013 Civil Rights and Revolutions in the Americas: The United States and Canada in the 1960s Post War America – The Affluent Society  Unprecedented prosperity o Higher wages o Rise of consumer society o More disposable income o Population boom o Expanded social welfare programs (insurance, pension, health care)  Geographic mobility and urban sprawl  Expanded social welfare programs  Post war idealism: FDR “Four Freedoms” o Freedom of speech and expression o Freedom of worship o Freedom from want o Freedom from fear  “Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere.” – FDR, 1961 Post War America – Inequality  Growing Social Inequalities and Wealth Gap  Social Unrest and Polarization  Post War Civil Rights Demands The American Civil Rights Movement Start of the Movement: Non-Violent Civil Disobedience  Local laws were put in place that disenfranchised black Americans even after the Civil War  Were voting lists  Terror and fear were instilled in blacks who tried to get on the list  Continued inequality  “Separate but equal”: separate schools, transportation, etc.  Not really equal  Boycotts o Montgomery Bus Boycott (1956-57) o Rosa Parks and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. o Rosa Parks refused to give up seat in whites only section of a bus o Was arrested, convicted and fined o People came to Montgomery and began boycott of bus system  Sit-ins o Woolworth Sit-in (Greensboro, North Carolina, 1960) o Four young black students went into a store where they could spend money but could not sit at counter and eat o Sat down and ordered food but were not served o Stayed there until store closed o Kept coming back and sitting there all day, more people came o Merchant was pressured to allow black Americans to eat there  Freedom Rides/Voter Registration Organizing  Birmingham Campaign, 1963  March on Washington, 1963 o Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have a Dream” Speech o March on Washington to put in place a Civil Rights Act o Non-violent
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