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Lecture 13

History - Lecture 13-15 Notes .docx

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Bonny Ibhawoh

Exam  Know terms  Define them and say how they are relevant to the discussions in class  Rebellion and people power and how that instigates change  May fourth movement in china  Demand for change after second world war in india and Africa  Draw on cold war  The non-violent initiatives that have defined  Always impulses for peace and change  Sometimes lead to other conflicts (ex. Treaty of Versailles)  Draw attention to glasnost  Take everything learned in the course and find an argument for peace, for war, for conflict, for human rights  Dr. Henderson’s podcast on the Cold War th History – March 19 , 2013 Background and Origins  What is the Cold War? o Period of tensions and Rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union following the WWII 1945-1990s The Brink of Nuclear War  The U2 Spy plane episode 1960  Proxy Wars in the Developing world: wars of liberation o Flexible response o Proxy wars: Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan o Battle for hearts and mind  The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 “for six days peace or war hung in the balance” o Tutorial Reading: Cuban Missile Crisis: “Today there is little doubt that both Khrushchev and Kennedy made some miscalculations and that Kennedy and the world were indeed fortunate that Khrushchev backed down  Terms of resolution of the crisis  Historical Questions: o Who is to blame for the Cold War? o Who won the Cold War? The West? We all lost the Cold War o Opportunity cost – Economic, Political and Social o Legacies of the Cold War (The Korean Peninsular) o Balance of power o A uni-polar world providing to be more dangerous and unstable than a bi- polar world Change and Conflict in the Middle East  Boundaries today are recent  People alive who remember when there were no boundaries  Used to find all different people in every community Understanding the Middle East  All post-colonial boundaries  Map is new  What/Where is the Middle East? o Middle East, Far East, Near East  Strategic Significance of the Middle East o Great crossroads of the world o Sacred territories – Jerusalem, Temple Mound, Al Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock o Imperial battleground; Cold War battleground o The center of the world because it is at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, Europe o Been traditionally the sacred side for many religions o Center of the war o  Historical Background: Colonial state boundaries  Conflicting Wartime Agreements in the Middle East: o Secret correspondence of 1915 o Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 o The Balfour Declaration 1917 o From the very beginning there were irreconcilable agreements happening a year apart from each other o This was a recipe for conflict  Effects of the World War II and the Holocaust: o Jewish migrations to Palestine o Strengthened Zionist aspirations for Jewish state  Which country in the Middle East besides Israel has the highest number of Jewish people in it? o Iran o Speaks to the historic demography of this region of the world o Had Jews all over Nationalism and Independence in the Arab World  The rice of Arab Nationalism and Islamist parties  Independence and continued Western influence in the Middle East (Politics of Oil) o Oil is discovered in Arabian peninsula o Becomes very desirable o Changes the politics of the region o Emergence of a post-colonial Arab nationalism o Post-colonial leaders yearned for pan-Arabism  Post War ideological division in the Middle-East o Conservative regimes vs. Revolutionary regimes  Popular opposition against the Arab Conservative regimes  Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Nationalism and Pan-Arabism 1952-1970 o Goff Reading: “Nasser on Imperialism and Development” o Moss Reading: “Nasser and Arab Nationalism” – Memoirs on the Egyptian revolution in 1961  Moss Reading: Nasser’s speech 1961 o Thinking about a pan-Arab movement o Brings him into direct conflict with Americans and Europeans The Arab Israeli Conflict  Global impact of the Arab-Israeli Conflict o 1948 War: The creation of Israel and the first war o 1956 War: Nasser and the nationalization of the Suez o 1967: The Six Day War and Israeli victory o 1973: Egypt/Israeli War (Yom Kippur War) o Impact of the Cold War  Without the Suez canal, the only way from Europe to Asia is to go around Africa (twice the distance)  The problem of the British mandate of Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: o The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) – Division of Palestine o Britain is conflicted about who to deal with o British are desperate to get out but have no solutions o Hand over mandates to United Nations o United Nations now has the problem of deal with very conflicted situation in Middle-East  1948 War: The creation of Israel and the first war o Tutorial Reading: Golda Meir on Israel’s independence  The 1956 Arab Israeli War: The Suez Canal War: o Nasser beings to aspire towards nationalizing the Suez Canal o Was a relative success o Was a political disaster o Hope was that the invasion of Egypt would lead to the downfall of Nasser o War makes him even more popular o Conflict begins to play in the hands of Nasser o Conflict solves no problems: Nasser still in power and only delays the next conflict (when Nasser begins
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