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The Russian Revolution 1917.docx

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Stephen Heathorn

The Russian Revolution 1917­ 1930s Origins of Bolshevism: • Bolsheviks is the name given to a social democratic party – left wing politicians/ intellectuals • 1903 London Conference of Russian social Democrats o Think and debate about how Russia is going to move from autocracy to socialism o Disagreements about how to proceed  Split during the conference between Mensheviks (minority) and Bolsheviks (majority)  Led by Vladmir Illich Ulyanov- Lenin (1870-1923)  Believes in a utopian classless society where everyone is equal and everything is equitable than it is now • Capitalism has not collapsed because it is support by imperialism o Marx believe that capitalism would crash • Imperialism needs to tackled  thought it would happen since countries were constantly fighting over colonies and territory • Thought it was ignorant to believe that the working class would rise up and lead the revolution  they are too oppressed, too busy to make ends meet o Need a VANGUARD- a secret political party of intellectuals that will push the people into what they really need o Bolshevics become this vanguard for the people 1905 Revolution • SOVIET in Russian = Worker’s council o Workers in cities in Russia form councils our goals are this, how are we going to get it • Tsar Nicholas II responds with the October Manifesto Impact of the First World War Before: Russia is slow to industrialize compared to the rest of Europe People can’t rise up, and revolution is hard • By 1915 Russia is on the defensive • Ill-equipped and not prepared for a long war o Logistically and not an efficient industrial economy to support the costs of war o Russian soldiers not equipped to fight the war it has to face  Modern warfare was enhanced  Solders give up with the useless weapons they are given • Mass killing, and mass retreat  Duma: city tries to run the country, soldiers +peasants of the country side, + workers of the cities = try to push for an end of the war • Only those in power + middle class want the war  Farmer’s crops are given and used to support the war effort February Revolution 1917 • Workers revolt in a number of cities  Councils in cities (SOVIETS) demand that Russia pull out of the war take to the streets o Series of street demonstrations that force the governments hands o Government agrees to set up a new provisional government  More representative of the people  More power to the people  People of the government are democrat and liberal • But still keep Russia in the war o Russia would lose a lot of money (loans) if it left the war o This does not stop the unrest – Russia is still demanding to leave the war o GERMANY puts Lenin on a train and forces him to go back to Russia from where he was banished  Lenin will be destabilizing factor in the Russian society  Lenin returns to Russia (April 1917); turns Bolsheviks against provisional government 
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