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Lecture

History of Greece and Rome-Mar.15 "The Second Triumvirate, Caesar Augustus and the Restoration of the Republic"


Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 1M03
Professor
Sean Corner

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March15
Triumvirate to Restore the Roman Republic
- Cicero thinks he can use Octavian who demands consulship and marches on
Rome when he is denied.
o Reconciles with:
- Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus triumvirs for the restoration of the state
(‘Second Triumvirate’)
o Proscriptions
Lists of people who’s rights, property and life were forfeit
Political enemies, people wanted for their properties.
o 42: Antony and Octavian defeat Cassius and Brutus at Phillipi
Cassius commits suicide in the first battle
Brutus commits suicide after the first battle.
- The Roman world was then in the iron grip of the Second Triuvirate; Caesar was
deified.
o Octavian becomes known as divi filius (son of a god)
o Lepidus left behind in the triumvirate,
- 40: Antony ad Octavia’s marriage alliance & division of the world.
o Lepidus is given Africa which is taken away from him by Octavian
eventually.
o Antony and Cleopatra as lovers their three children (and Caesarian
her child by Caesar) being kingly, disposing Roman territories to the
Ptolemaic Queen.
Octavian claims Antony as a traitor of Rome, eventually declaring
war on Cleopatra.
- Octavian vs. Antony and Cleopatra, represented by Octavian as Rome vs. Egypt.
o 31: Battle of Actium; naval battle, victory for Octavian, but Cleopatra and
Antony escaped.
o 30: Ptolemaic city seized, and Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide,
Caesarion (son of Cleopatra & Caesar) is murdered.
- Octavian hold rule over Rome holding superior consulship every year. In
principle he only held the power of a consul, in practice he held the sweeping
power he had as tribute.
o 1st Settlement of 27: Octavian returns his consulship, settling for co-equal
consulship and take charge of provinces predisposed to invasion and
rebellion (Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus, Egypt and Syria for ten year
exclusively. Appointed legate to help run each province. They bestowed
the name Augustus upon him.
o 2nd settlement of 23: resigned consulship, and takes proconsular position
over his provinces, but also holding authority over positions of maius
imperium & tribunicia potestas.
He, by being charged permanently with the office of Roman
tribute, he woud have the right to summon senate and pose laws,
and the power of veto over laws posed by other.
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