History of Greece and Rome-Mar.19 "Augustus, Tiberius & Gaius"

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21 Mar 2012
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March 19
Augustus, Tiberius & Gaius
o Curia Julia (Iulia)
Building in which the Senate met, a building which bears the name
of the princeps identification of the name of the princeps with the
o Temple of Mars
Senate met in the Temple during times of war.
Representative of vengeance for his Julian family a moment of
his family embedded in the city forever.
Ara Pacis Agustae (Altar of the Augustan Peace)
celebrated the peace that had been restored by his victories
Romanas Peace had become Augustan Peace
Month of July: month in his father’s honor,
His family name was insinuated into Roman time.
o Dynastic succession with no hereditary principle
Princeps theoretically only first citizen, therefore no kingly
principle.. but in practice he sought security.
Augustus married his daughter to his friend Marcus Agrippa
Lieutenant in Augustus’ army
Gaius and Lucius
Julia’s sons;
Adopted by Augustus as his own sons
They both died young
Livia’s remaining son, adopted as his legal son.
Augustus long Principate, to 14 CE, secured by the senate to
Tiberius’ who succeeded
Augustus ruled Rome for 45 years, under his principate
Rome enjoyed peace, prosperity, and imperial security.
If Lucius and Gaius had have survived, they would have
been to young to succeed him without plunging Rome into
civil war their claim would have been disputable as they
had no official experience. would have been seen as
hereditary succession and non-acceptable
Tiberius had long history of military and political service
made it seem as though it was commensurate of his
achievements rather than looking like hereditary authority
The Julio-Claudians
Julius Caesar/ Claudius Tiberius
Augustan military-imperial policy:
Post-Actium discharge of troops,
o Using Ptolemaic wealth to settle these men
Additions to the empire: Egypt , north-west Spain, Danube
Diplomacy with Parthia
o Gained the Roman standards lost by Crassius
o Any king of Armenia must be endorsed by Rome -
o 6 CE in Pannonia & Dalmatia (Danubian provinces)
o 9 CE in Germany (Teautoberg)
Rhine, Danube, Euphrates: accepted as the limit to their
o Consolidation of rule within the delimited territory:
the empire of Rome
o 14 CE: Tiberius’ establishment of military & civil authority new first
Seized control of the Preatorian guard
Senate confirmed him Pirnceps, although he protested
o Despite good government, bad relations with senate and people
Spent most of his adult life on campaign, did not have Augustus’
good grace with the Senate and people.
Was not the lavish spender in the way the Augustus was on
entertainment and luxury, despite his generosity in the in the face
of hardship
Very little popularity, which went to his brother’s son,
Germanicus, who he sent to the East, when he died
suddenly in 19 (rumoured that Germanicus’ death was by
poison, arranged by Tiberius)
Grooming Drusus as his heir, holding two consulships and tribune
position, but died by 22 possibly poisoned, if so by the preafect
Tiberius’s promotion of the Praetorian Guard and Praetorian
Prefect Lucius Sejanus
Tiberius became more withdrawn and suspicious after the
death of his family, increasingly reliant on Sejanus
Crimes against the princeps family became synonymous
with treason
o As Sejanus rose to power, the number of treason-
realted trials increased, to keep the senate
26: Tiberius retires to Capri, never to return
Senate’s impotence in Tiberius’ absence
o Crippled by their dependence on Tiberius’, made to
feel more dependent on Sejanus, who controlled
access to the emperor, and therefore controlled the
Sejanus domination and plots;
o Trying to work his way into the royal family through
marriage and murdering adversaries
o In 31, Tiberius had him executed for his crimes upon
o Tiberius’ death not mourned; his heirs – Gaius Caesar and Tiberius
Succession of only Gaius, through the popularity of his father
Early promise;
Throwing games for the city and attended,
Illness of 38, killing Marcus Silanus and Tiberius Gemellus
Victims of new paranoia borne of new neurological trauma
due to illness, conspirators involved in plot or exercise of
new power
Hostile sources: Gaius scandalous acts: criticism of public policy
turned into private vice account probably exaggerated, to
critique public policies and actions
Accounts of incestuous relations with his sister (associated
with the gods stories may reflect his promotion of himself
and his family as deities), odd war commands etc.
Not princeps but divine king: autocratic rule
Courting vulgar popularity, appearing in public as a charioteer,
gladiator, and singer..
Wounding to the dignity of the senate
o Gaius not only ignored the senate but the army.