History of Greece and Rome-Apr.2. "The Fall of Rome"
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The Fall of Rome
- 337: Constantine succeeded by his three sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and
o Constantius killed in invasion of Constans’ territory, Constantine II
- 350-367: Constantius sole emperor, appointed his cousin heir.
o Anti-pagan policy – temples closed and practices banned.
- 361-363: Julian – secret pagan institutes anti-Christian policies.
- 363-364: Jovian appointed by military commander, dies soon after.
o The power to appoint the next emperor became a power in itself, and the
military commanders appointed military men.
- Valentinian (364-375) & Valens (364-378).
o Succeeded by his Valentinian’s sons:
o Gratian and Valentinian Augustus(in the west.)
- 378-392: Theodosius I Augustus in the East upon Valens’ death.
o Outlaws paganism altogether
- 392-395: Theodosius sole emperor
o Problem of the defense of the frontier from wandering tribes.
Policy of controlled settlement of migrants: delimited amount of
settlers that could be accommodated and assimilated.
Children of immigrants were required to serve in the army,
keeping the rest of the immigrants out. These immigrants
provided the manpower of the majority of the Roman empire
(mostly Germanic army results).
o 370s: Theodoseus concedes larger settlement of Goths than could be
accommodated and assimilated, in their own communities within the
Roman empire & fighting in their own separate army contingents,
commanded by their own leaders.
o Theodoseus died and was succeeded by his sons Honarius, at 10, (395-
423) and Arcadius, at 17, (395-408)
Boy emperors dominated by ministers, German commander
Stilicho and Greek Olympius.
Alaric decided that he and his people had not been rewarded aptly
for his services; he raids Greece (399) and Italy (401)
- 407-8: Conflict between the east and west.
- 408: Stilicho submitted for Alaric to be paid 400 pounds of gold; resulting in his
execution and the massacre of German soldiery.
o Strong ethnic tension between the military administration and the civil
Old settled families, well integrated into the Roman empire, were
regarded with prejudice from the civil administration.