Virtue was redefined to legitimize contributions to human society that extended beyond the strict reaches of the church. This conception of virtue was active in nature, shown through the outward display of virtue both in behaviour and judgement. Mastery of the body and mind came with training over time through the application of reason and a rigorous formation in a humanist curriculum studies. The humanist curriculum gave significant emphasis to classical philosophy and history in particular because of their exploration of human nature and governance. Giannozzo manetti (d. 1459), on the dignity and excellence of man. Pico della mirandola, oration on the dignity of man (1486) Humanist writings evinced a more optimistic conception of human nature than was typically characteristic of medieval theology; view that reflected a distinct break from the traditional augustinian view, which emphasized the bleak and devious nature of the human will.