-monistic ethical theories hold that there is a single ultimate principle of morality
- utilitarianism: principle of utility
-deontology categorical imperative
Pluralistic ethical theories hold that there are many basic principles of morality.
ETHICAL PLURALISM – WD ROSS 1877-1971
Primae facie duties (PF DUTIES)
- these are fundamental ethical obligations
- they are intuitive
- they are universally recognized
- the duties we have in a particular situation
- - it is often unclear what our actual duties are
- -reasonable people can disagree with what actual duties are
do no harm, do good etc.
Fidelity: to keep our promises
Reparation – to compensate victims
Gratitude- to return favours for favours
Justice – to share goods fairly
Beneficence – to improve the condition of others
Self-improvement- to improve our own condition
non-deficiency – to not injure others
In our ordinary lives, we often find that the primae facie duties compete and conflict
with each other
Our actual duty is what we should do in that particular situation
Should I keep my promise to be home at 8:00 or stay out to help a friend in distress?
Fidelity: keep promise
Beneficence: help the friend
My actual duty is what I should do in this situation.
The actual duty depends on the situation.
What should I do if two of duties CONFLICT?
What should I do if the same duty recommends two different courses of action?
USE YOUR BEST JUDGEMENT GOOD JUDGEMENT
People who generally make good judgments posses a number of characteristics:
-not overcome with emotions
-Careful (weigh all the evidence)
-Justify their decisions
A framework for ethical decision making in the biomedical context.
Health care practiioners should make decisions in accordance with follow
VIRTUE ETHICS – associated with Aristotle
Human action is goal oriented we act for the sake of an end ( why did we do
What is the ultimate goal of human action?
To achieve a good life
ETHICAL ACTIONS AND THE GOOD LIFE
If living, a good life is something that we ought to then understanding what a good
life is essential for the ethical action.
VIRTUE ETHICS IS A SELF INTERESTED ETHIC ( the reason why we act like this is
because it is in my best interest)
WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR A GOOD LIFE?
- Externals (health, economic, well-being, etc.)
- a person in chronic pain, or living in a dumpster is not living a good life
- in order to live a good life, you must have these externals.
- Activity – Not living a good life if you are not doing things with your life ( not
being a couch potato) (they may be active by catching sticks 24/7, but are
they LIVING A GOOD LIFE? NO)
- Virtue -
VIRTUE AND VICE
- virtue = excellence
- virtues a