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Lecture 1

HTHSCI 3K03 Lecture 1: HTHSCI 3K03 Lecture Notes Compiled

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Health Sciences
K Rosenthal

Virology 3K03 2011 Lecture 1: Introduction Virus: Infectious obligate intracellular parasite >4000 known Genome = DNARNAin cell Viruses cannot translate proteins must use host ribosomesmachinery! o Doesnt do something new uses existing processes Spontaneous assembly of newly synthesized components progeny virions o Based on encoded instructions Attachment o SUSCEPTIBLE has receptor o PERMISSIVE replication + progeny production Protection from extracellular environment Release in proper compartment of cell o Body has different epithelial surfaces Different surfacesreceptors Different proteins + lipids + carbs + salicylic acid o May be anchored to cytoskeleton Some ubiquitous (present on all cells) Some specific to types of cells Tropism: Virus tends to invadereplicate in cell typetissue (may not be receptor related) Host Range: Species that are susceptible + permissive Lipid bilayer (Entry) Phagocytosis (for bacteria more) Pinocytosis (not used) Receptormediated endocytosis Clathrincoated pit Invaginates, pinches off vesicle BecomesACIDIFIED Fuses with lysosome (causes pH change!!) Virus uses pH change as signal! o HAreceptor on enveloped INFLUENZAbinds to sialic acid Sialic acid is found on all cells, BUT inside cell determines tropism o HAmolecule changes conformation (with pH) Binding protein fusogenic protein o Hydrophobic region exposed catalyzes fusion with endosome ADENOVIRUS: Nonenveloped DNAvirus nucleus Punch a hole in endosome Low pH activates protease disrupt endosomal membrane Release viral particle by riding on histones nuclear pore o POLIOVIRUS: RNA virus cytoplasm In response to pH change: VP1 protein injected into endosome membrane o Porelike protein Viral genome injected to cytoplasm o PARAMYXOVIRIDAE Two proteins (complex) One for BINDING one for FUSION After binding using HN to cell receptor, the F protein changes conformation Mediates fusion of viral envelope + cell membrane o Directly puts contents into cytoplasm o Enveloped virus
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