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HLTHAGE 1BB3 Lecture Notes - Population Pyramid, Population Ageing, Old Age

Health, Aging and Society
Course Code
Anju Joshi

of 4
Demographics of aging in Canada:
- Is the study of populations and those variables bringing about changes in that population
Demographic or population aging:
- Is the process whereby a population is made up increasingly of older age groups- especially
those 65 years and older
The United Nations definition:
- A population is considered “AGED” when more than 7% of it is over 65 years of age
2011 census- Canada:
- According to the 2011 census, the number of Canadians aged 65 and over increased by 14%
between 2006 and 2011
- In comparison, the number of children aged 14 and under increased by .5% in the previous 5
- The 65 and over population made up a record 14.8% of the total population of Canada in 2011
- More old-old in Canadian society
- People aged 80 years and over: their number topped the 1 million mark for the first time in 2006
(1.2 million)
Life expectancy:
- The average number of years of life remaining at a given age (e.g. at birth, at age 65) or the
average number of years a person is projected tolive at a given age
- Varies by culture, geographic region, gender, ethnicity, education, personal habits etc.
- Dependency-free- life expectancy: number of people in a given population can expect to live in
reasonably good health (disability free)
Sex ratio: 2011 census
- By age 65 there were about 125 women for 100 men
- By age 80 there were 170 women per 100 men
- By age 100, 500 women for 100 men
Life span:
- The theoretical maximum number of years an individual can live
- Life span is the fixed, finite maximum limit of survival of a species (120 for humans?)
- LS has increased and will continue to increase
Measuring population aging:
Population pyramid:
- Two bar graphs laid back to back
- Goal is to provide a conceptual image of how a populations age-sex structure looks
- Males and females are on opposite sides
- Each bar represents the number of people of each age and sex in the population
- References in textbook- p.66 exhibit 4.5
Median age:
- An age at the midpoint of a population- ½ of the population is older than the median, ½ of the
population is younger
- The median age in Canada was 30 in 1983, in 2006 the median age was 39 and it is expected to
reach 48 is 2031
- In 2011 the median age was 40
- Median age of 30+ is old
- Median age of 20- is young
Dependency ratios:
- Used to calculate the number of dependents for every 100 people in the working population
- Old age dependency ratio- ratio of those over 65 to those of labour force age
- Workers= 19-64, non-workers= 65+
- Total dependency ratio= ratio of all non-workers (including children 19 and below) to workers
- (non-workers 0-19) + (non-workers 65+) divided by workers aged 20-64
Causes of demographic aging:
- Population size and structure are affected by the following three demographic forces:
1. Decreased mortality
2. Decreasing fertility
3. Immigration
- Decreased mortality= decline in death rates
- Significant influence on population aging
- More people living longer and living into late old age
Decline in infant mortality dramatic- WHY?
- Control of childhood disease
- Better prenatal care
- Improved nutrition/sanitation
Decreased fertility:
- Decline in birth rates
- MOST IMPORTANT factor for population aging
- Population ages when proportion of young people declines
2011 census:
- The population of children aged 4 and under increased 11.0% between 2006 and 2011
- Highest growth rate for this age group since the 1956-1961 period during the baby boom
- Statistics Canada, 2012
Decreased fertility:
Baby boom cohort: 1946-1964
- Birth rate rose- why?
- Decrease in age at marriage
- Economic uprising (post WWII)
- Shorter intervals between births
Baby bust cohort: 1965-1979
- Birth rate dropped- why?
- Increasing age at marriage
- Delaying childbirth
- Economic difficulties
- Better birth control (the pill)
- Abortion (minor)
- Changing role of women
- Smallest role in population aging
- Pattern has changed over time
- Alters the ethnic make-up of Canadian society and older Canadians
- According to the 2006 census, immigration has had a significant effect on the growth and
diversity of Canada’s population, but a minor impact on aging