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Lecture 3

HLTHAGE 1BB3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Dependency Ratio, Old Age, Population Ageing


Department
Health, Aging and Society
Course Code
HLTHAGE 1BB3
Professor
Yvonne Leblanc
Lecture
3

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1BB3 Population Aging – Continued
Causes of Demographic Changes
Population size and structure are affected by the following three demographic forces:
1. Fertility rate
2. Increase in life expectancy
3. Immigration
Decreased Fertility
*Fertility rate has gone down, explaining why we have not had a “replacement” for our
population explains why such a large portion of our population is older
The greatest changes in the Canadian population are due to:
- Baby boom – sharp rise in the fertility rate in Canada from about 1946-1964
- Baby bust – sharp drop in the fertility rate from the mid-1960s on
Immigration
- Smallest role in population aging
- Pattern has changed over time
- Alters the ethnic make up of Canadian Society and older Canadians
Apocalyptic Demography
- Oversimplified notion that a demographic trend such as population aging has
devastating consequences for society
Population Pyramid
- Goal is to provide a conceptual image of how population’s age-sex structure looks
- Two bar graphs laid back to back
- Males and females are on opposite sides
- Each bar represents the number of people age and sex in the population
Why should we be concerned about an aging population?
- Some people say it will be a drain on pensions that the young working people
have to support
- Drain on our healthcare system
Drain on who will be able to pay for it
- However we can implement policies to help counteract these effects
Majority of healthcare costs have to do with other things besides the
elderly
Dependency Ratio
- Used to calculate the number of dependents for every 10 people in the working
population
- Old age dependency ration = ratio of those over 65 to those of labour force age
Non-workers=65+/workers 19-64
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