HLTHAGE 2G03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Parenting Styles, Tyrant, Mental Health

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Lecture 8 Mental Health Across the Lifespan
March 12, 2018
Introduction
- We have an understanding of what is normal mental health is drawn from a
specific population (middle-aged, white people)
o We measure everyone else outside this group against this standard
- Young and old periods are marked by massive shifts in identity and roles etc.
o There are some specific differences when it comes to criteria from
childhood and old age
o Both children and older adults are described as facing unique challenges
related to MH
o Some unique features about child and older adult MH
E.g. emphasis on 3rd party reporting
Emergence of Childhood Mental Health
- “the invention of childhood” – 19th c., defining childhood as a discrete period of
someone’s life
o separate period from the rest of life period of leisure and play
o our idea of what it means to be a “normal” child – normal development
- emergence of psy-ences helped transform “bad kids” into “problem children”
- growth of psychoanalysis affected how we think about childhood
o we have very significant relationships to our families if these
relationships are disrupted they lead to MH problems
ex: Oedipus complex
Bruno Bettleheim the Empty fortress
This theory was thought to go as far as to explain autism
- 1950s cult of the “ideal family” – the “broken home” as a threat to children and
society
o anything that deviates from the ideal family pose a threat to child
development
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o the broken home tends to be an reason why someone acts the way they
do
o refrigerator mothers, divorcees, widowers cited as incubators of poor
mental health
Emergence II
- mental hygiene movement promoted prevention of mental illness
o surveillance in school system guidance counsellors, nurses, teaches
become the eyes of mental illness
o 1960s move to identify children with minor issues that may develop into
something more severe later in life (ie. “pre-delinquents”)
early-intervention to reduce the possibility for “full blown” MI
o Distinction btwn healthy and unhealthy children hardened moving from
spectrum to a binary of normal/abnormal
Movement away from defining an individual as a spectrum of
possible behaviours and towards identifying words/title something
inherent to the individual (ie. the autistic child)
o New diagnoses emerge to capture these “disturbed” children
Case Study: Conduct Disorder
- “a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of
others or major age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated.”
- Sign: excessive levels of fighting, bullying, cruelty to people or animals,
destructiveness to property, fire setting, stealing, lying, being tyrant, running
away from home, temper tantrums, playing pranks, being sexually active at a
young age, disobedience
o this list is so large that the majority of negative behaviours is likely to fall
under this disorder
- Linked to inconsistent parenting, parental mental health problems, poverty, low
educational achievement.
o Other speculated causes linked to genetics and other biological features
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- Perhaps 16% of US children are diagnosed with CD
o Example of social concerns become biological disorder and problems
Explosion of Childhood Mental Disorder
- Since mid-1990s
o Rates of ADHD have tripled
o Autism diagnoses up by 2000%
o Children B.D. rates increased by 4000%
- We are using these diagnoses in a much broader sense
o Policing of negative behaviours
- Childhood mental health is redefined as an critical period for intervention
o Old attitude: kids will eventually grow out of these negative behaviours
o Now: we need to change the behaviours when we see them and before
they develop into something worse
o Biological explanation: neural plasticity new connections are being
formed
o Psych explanation: learned behaviours occur at young age (behaviours,
patterns, self-concept)
o Social explanations: learn relationships with others, connected to
community
Explaining the Rise Criteria
- Expanding criteria: increasing number of symptoms, broader range of symptoms,
greater likelihood that someone will meet those criteria
o ADHD hyperactivity AND/OR inactivity now includes daydreamers
who do not display hyperactivity, age threshold increased to 12 years
(greater period of time to exhibit these behaviours)
More girls struggle with attention so more girls were diagnosed
o Autism originally emphasized communication issues, social struggles,
and intellectual deficits
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Document Summary

Lecture 8 mental health across the lifespan. We have an understanding of what is normal mental health is drawn from a specific population (middle-aged, white people: we measure everyone else outside this group against this standard. Emergence of psy-ences helped transform bad kids into problem children . A repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. Linked to inconsistent parenting, parental mental health problems, poverty, low educational achievement: other speculated causes linked to genetics and other biological features. Perhaps 16% of us children are diagnosed with cd: example of social concerns become biological disorder and problems. Since mid-1990s: rates of adhd have tripled, autism diagnoses up by 2000, children b. d. rates increased by 4000% We are using these diagnoses in a much broader sense: policing of negative behaviours. Childification: new childhood symptoms created for disorders previously associated with only adults.

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