HLTHAGE 3Q03 Lecture 3: Lecture 3 Health, Safety, and Security of the Incarcerated
DepartmentHealth, Aging and Society
Course CodeHLTHAGE 3Q03
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Health: Being 'healthy' refers to a holistic sense of well-being
Unhealthy: To be unhealthy then refers to a lack of holistic well-being
Quality of life: refers to the "subjective evaluations of both positive and negative aspects of life"
Defining Key Terms
"Absence of distressing physical symptoms (e.g., pain, dyspnea, nausea, constipation)"
"Emotional well-being (e.g. happiness, absence of anxiety)"
"Functional status (e.g., capacity to do activities of daily living and higher-order functions,
such as pleasurable activities)"
"Quality of close interpersonal relationships (e.g. with family members)"
"Participation in and enjoyment of social activities"
"Satisfaction with medial and financial aspects of treatment"
"Sexuality, body image, and intimacy"
According to the Merck Manual, the health-related quality of life (HRQQL) includes the following
Health-related Quality of Life
According to the WHO (2014), well-being refers to a state: "in which every individual realizes his
or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and
fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community"
Therefore well-being = "overall satisfaction with life" and includes "global judgements of
life satisfaction and feelings ranging from depression to joy"
The CDC (2013) sees well-being as a "positive outcome" which reveals that "people perceive
that their lives are going well"
Cardiovascular health problems
Respiratory health problems
Higher rates of cancer, especially cervical cancer
Substance abuse disorders
Poor mental health
Victims of abuse and violence
"Infectious diseases, including hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis"
Experiencing inmate violence
Binswanger et al., (2011: 98-99) outlines some of the health difficulties experienced by the
incarcerated. Importantly, they are that inmates experience "…higher burden of chronic
diseases" than the non-incarcerated including:
Health in Prisons Around the World
One in 5 inmates is over age of 50
The average level of education is Grade 8
80% of offenders have addiction or substance abuse problems
80% of federally sentenced women have been sexually abused
31% have Hepatitis C and 5% have HIV
Almost half of all offenders required mental health care in the past year
Key points from the annual report of Correctional Investigator of Canada about state of health,
wellness and well-being of the incarcerated (Brosnahan, 2013):
Health in Canadian Prisons
Wakefield & Uggen (2010) agree with other scholars about the heath problems faced by the
Interestingly, they note the following statistics based on the National Commission on
Correctional Health Care (2002):
Health in Prisons US Prisons
Lecture 3: Health, Safety, and Security of the
June 28, 2016
Health and Incarceration Page 1
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