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Lecture 1

ISCI 2A18 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hydrogen Bond, Titration, Sodium Hydroxide

Integrated Science
Course Code
Carolyn Eyles

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Drug Discovery Introduction
January 12, 2014
Introductory Lecture:
What is biochemistry?
Most important part of diagram energy!
Most of us have heard of the term energy crisis while we will likely run out of fossil fuels,
the actual energy source (our Sun), will likely not be depleted in our lifetime.
We also hear that there is an overpopulation (population explosion) of humans, but the
land certainly produces enough to support all of us it is not an issue of production, it is an
issue of distribution.
Global warming is also a big issue.
Carbon dioxide is the second-most important part of the diagram. It is like the battery
without, you cannot charge! It stores energy for life processes, and works with water (3rd
most important also necessary for the battery to work). It is a limiting factor in plant
Starches are linked together by alpha 1,4 glycosidic linkages
Cellulose glucose molecules linked by beta 1,4 linkages
Everything in this diagram relies on glucose! We certainly will not run out of glucose but,
not all of it is in an accessible form! Humans do not produce cellulases cannot break
down cellulose.
Dr. Yang’s lab produces cellulases!
Biochemistry study of the chemical processes and chemical transformations in living
Life able to maintain a state that is different from the environment
Death in equilibrium with the environment
Life is maintained by energy obtained through metabolism of nutrients.
Big terms like global warming, population explosion, theory of life belong to political
arena, not scientific discussions!
While many textbooks have a chapter on the origins of life, it is not necessarily reproducible
by experiment!
Theory on the Origin of Life vs. Requirement for Maintenance of Life:
find more resources at
find more resources at

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Earth is the only place with demonstrated existence of living organisms
So far, we have not been able to produce any living organisms in the lab
We can conduct experiments in the lab to figure out conditions that are required for
the maintenance of life
Models have been put forth to explain the origin of life
It is very important to remember that until a proven model should be treated as
speculation or educated guess
Dr. Yang published the article in Nature on the structure of antifreeze protein. The journal
would not publish the image of the structure even though it is correct, you must have a
story! You must explain the importance how the structure works! With the same images,
the better storyteller would get his paper published. The determination of the structure was
very smart (“unprecedented”), but the mechanistic implications are “garbage”.
Later, with a grad student, he published an entirely different model. It was rejected in less
than a year.
The pictures are correct, but the interpretations were wrong!
In icecream, antifreeze protein slows down the recrystallization of ice particles. While the
application is right, the business implications were not as predicted.
The Chemical Basis of Life:
Cells contain 4 major types of biomolecules: amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides, lipids.
There are 3 major kinds of biological polymers: proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides
Life obeys the laws of thermodynamics!
First Law energy is conserved (system and surroundings).
Energy change of a system = heat (q) absorbed by the system from the
surroundings work (w) done by system on the surroundings
deltaU = Ufinal Uinitial = q w
Enthalpy, H = U + PV, deltaH = deltaU + PdeltaV = qp w + PdeltaV (where qP
is heat at constant pressure), w = PdeltaV
deltaH = qp w + PdeltaV = qP
Second Law entropy tends to increase
S (entropy) = Kb lnW (Kb is Boltzmann constant, W is # of energetically equivalent
2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O But entropy decreases!
find more resources at
find more resources at
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