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L6 - Tissues Intro and Epithelial Sept 17 Week.docx

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McMaster University
Tracy Mc Donald

Chapter 4 - Histology: The Study of Tissues Lecture Tissue and Histology - Histology: tissue fixed to slide can be examined - Tissue classification based on structure of cells, composition of noncellular (extracellular matrix), and cell function - Epithelial - Connective - Muscle - Nervous Embryonic Tissue Germ Layers - Endoderm: - inner layer - forms lining of digestive tract and derivitives (evaginations of digestive tract) - Mesoderm: - middle layer - forms tissue as such muscle, bone, blood vessels - urinary system - Ectoderm: - outer layer - forms skin and neuroectoderm Epithelial Tissue - consists almost entirely of cells - covers body surfaces and forms glands - outside surface of body - lining of digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems - heart and blood vessels - linings of many body cavities - has free (no attachment to cells or extracellular matrix) , basal (contact to basem ent membrane) and lateral surfaces (contact of other cells + components of epithelial tissue) - basement membrane - specialized cell contacts - avascular - doesn't have a direct blood supply - recieves oxygen + nutrients by diffusion from vascular supply deep to tissue, exchanges waste through that - regenerate - some levels Basement Membrane - Extracellular: formed by secretions of both epithelium + connective tissue - Acellular 'glue' - attachment between superficial epithelium to underlying connective tissue - guides cell migration during tissue repair - acts as a filter in nephron of the kidney - saw in mature formation of placenta - looked at syncitiotrophoblast + basement membrane - not every epithelium has a basement membrane associated with it Classification of Epithelium - Number of layers of cells Simple: one layer of cells Stratified: more than one layer. shape of cells of apical layer (free layer) used to name the tissue - shape of cells may be diff close to basement membrane as opposed to free/apical layer Psuedostratified: tissue appears to be stratified, but all cells contact basement membrane so it is in fact simple - Shape of cells: Squamous: flat, scale-like Cuboidal: about equal in height and width Columnar: taller than wide Functional Characteristics - Simple: allows diffusion of gases, filtration of blood, secretion, absorption - Stratified: protection, particularly against abrasion - Squamous: allows diffusion or acts as filter - Cubodial and columnar: secretion or absorption, may include goblet cells that produce and secrete mucus Free Surfaces Free surfaces of epithelium: - Smooth: reduce friction - Microvilli: increase surface area for absorption or secretion Stereocilia: elongated microvilli for sensation and absorption - inner ear structures - Cilia: move materials across the surface - lungs - Folds: in transitional epithelium where organ must be able to change shape. urinary system Simple Squmous Epithelium - Structure: single layer of flat cells - Location: lining of blood and lymphatic vessels (endothe
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