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Introduction to Nutrition

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McMaster University
Danny M.Pincivero

1 WHAT IS KINESIOLOGY? The science of human movement. Kinesiology Act, 2007, S.O. 2007, Chapter 10, Schedule O. Scope of practice • The practice of kinesiology is the assessment of human movement and performance and its rehabilitation and management to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement and performance. • College of Kinesiologists of Ontario Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991 • Establishes health professions regulated by provincial government and colleges. • “Controlled acts” KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 2 Regulated Health Professions, Ontario. Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. • 23 self-regulated health professions KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 3 WHAT IS PHYSIOLOGY? • The science of the functions of the living organism and its components and the chemical and physical processes involved. (Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary). “In human physiology, we are concerned with the specific characteristics and mechanisms of the human body that make it a living being. The very fact that we remain alive is almost beyond our own control, for hunger makes us seek food and fear makes us seek refuge. Sensations of cold make us provide warmth, and other forces cause us to seek fellowship and to reproduce. Thus, the human being is actually an automaton, and the fact that we are sensing, feeling, and knowledgeable beings is part of this automatic sequence of life; these special attributes allow us to exist under widely varying conditions that otherwise would make life impossible”. (Guyton & Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 1996). Why is Physiology important? • Improve the lives of people (or other animals). • How? • Disease and injury management, human performance improvement What is the difference between “physical activity” and “exercise”? EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY-RELATED ORGANIZATIONS • American Physiological Society ( • American College of Sports Medicine ( • National Strength and Conditioning Association ( • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology ( • Establish 1967 as Canadian Association of Sports Sciences • Certifications: • Certified Personal Trainer TM • Certified Exercise PhysiologistTM KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 4 Physical Activity Continuum KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 5 WHAT IS NUTRITION? Latin derivative, nutritio, nourish • “All the processes involved in the taking in and utilization of food substances by which growth, repair, and maintenance of activities in the body as a whole or in any of its parts are accomplished. Includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism (assimilation). Some nutrients are capable of being stored by the body in various forms and drawn upon when the food intake is not sufficient.” Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary What is food? • “Any material that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being.” Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary Is food important?......obviously, YES. What role does food play in the world? KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 6 FOOD, SCIENCE AND WORLD PEACE Norman Borlaug (Mar 25, 1914 – Sept 12, 2009) 1970 Nobel Peace Prize • Invented a new strain of wheat (dwarf) which was disease resistant and generated high yields to combat world hunger. • Exported the new strain to Central America, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Africa WHY ISNUTRITION IMPORTANT? Nutrition can prevent disease. a. Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency: scurvy, goiter, rickets b. Diseases influenced by nutrition: chronic diseases such as heart disease c. Diseases in which nutrition plays a role: osteoarthritis, osteoporosis KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 7 NUTRITION AND OBESITY IN CANADA Why do we eat the way we do?......we’re influenced 1) Physiological hunger 2) Sensory stimulation  Food flavour: taste and smell  Texture: “feel” of food – crisp, chewy, smooth 3) Personal preferences 4) Habits: 3 meals/day 5) Ethnic heritage or tradition  One of the strongest influences on our eating habits/patterns a) Cultural beliefs and traditions b) Religion – established rules KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 8 6. Social interactions 7. Availability, convenience, and economy 8. Positive and negative associations: commercial advertising 9. Emotions: comfort….instinctive for newborns • Food cravings • Beta-endorphins (popular theory for feelings of pleasure) • Pica: craving for non-food items (dirt, clay)…pregnancy 10. Values 11. Body weight and image 12. Nutrition and health benefits KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 9 SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS Global market value, 2009: US$4.6 billion (does not include sports drinks, United States largest consumer, two-thirds in world) 1) Sports drinks • Provides carbohydrates and fluid…..enhance exercise performance and recovery. • In Canada 2009, valued at $423 million • Gatorade and Powerade 2) Sports food • Typically found in a bar format • Nutrient dense and leverages the functional food proposition; that is, it provides health benefits that go beyond their nutritional value • Whey and soy are dominant ingredients • In Canada, 2009, sales at $85.4 million 3) Sports supplements Objectives • Build muscle tissue, increase energy stores/utilization, decrease body fat. Forms: • Tablets, powders, ready-to-drink Typical ingredients: • Soy protein, whey protein, creatine, L-carnitine and amino acids (does not include sports drinks) Market share: Canada, 2009: • $114 million KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 10 Nutrient • Any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues, or regulate physiological/physical functions. Essential nutrient • A substance that must be ingested because the body cannot make it or adequate amounts of it. Macronutrient • A nutrient that is needed in relatively large amounts in the diet (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) Micronutrient • A nutrient that is needed in relatively small amounts in the diet (vitamins and minerals). Organic • In chemistry, any compound that contains carbon, except carbon oxides. Inorganic • Any substance that does not contain carbon, except certain simple carbon compounds (carbon dioxide). “Organic” food • Food growth without use of fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, etc. KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 11 “Organic” food • Must meet standards of the Canadian Organic
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