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Labour Studies 1a03 #1.word.doc

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Labour Studies
Paul Bocking

EmploymentformostCanadianworkershasdeclinedinqualityandrenumerationoverthepast40 years * Work is increasingly precarious and uncertain: According to the the It's More than Poverty' led buy Mac school of labour studies (2013), barely half of all canadian workers are in secure, permanent full time jobs with benefits; 20% work in precarious jobs a form of employment that has increased by 50% over the past 20 years - 65 to be eligible for pension collection - two different types of pensions defining benefit -in which an employer/sponsor promises a specified monthly benefit on retirement that is predetermined by a formula based on the employee's earnings history, tenure of service and age, rather than depending directly on individual investment returns. + defining contribution =>more vulnerable - the formula for computing the employer's and employee's contributions is defined and known in advance, but the benefit to be paid out is not known in advance. - major strikes owing to pensions, more recently air canada - Social Security System Universal like public education healthcare system paid for by taxes - The system has limits like no dental coverage and the pension plans are not enough *Adjusted for inflation, real wages have remained stagnant since 1976 * To keep up, workers have increased their hours: 2/3 of employed Canadians work over 45 hrs/week, 50 % increases from 20 yrs ago (national Study on Balancing Work and Caregiving in Canada, 2012) - Pay Equity Gap: A $ a man earns a woman earns 28 cents -> 28 % gap why, less in public sector and more in private sector : discrimination and 1 more and in 1987 it was 36% CanadianUnionizationTrends: * Currently 30% of all workers belong to unions, (71% in public sector; 16% in private sector) * Regional variation: 39% In Newfoundland & Labrador, 37% in Quebec; vs. 22% in Alberta, 27% in Ontario * Down from 38% in 1981 *Compare to US: peaked in 1954 at
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