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LABRST 1A03 (339)
David Goutor (304)
Lecture 2

Labour Studies - Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Department
Labour Studies
Course
LABRST 1A03
Professor
David Goutor
Semester
Winter

Description
Assignment #1  Part 1: o Answer the question o Do not just try to summarize article o Questions speak to main parts of article o Not simple questions (most have two parts) o Make sure to answer every part of question o Make sure to cover as many key parts of authors argument  Part 2: o Do not have to do all three o Can do any of them o Have to do at least one o Do not list obvious things o Look carefully at research that was done and at article o Do not have to be negative – be critical Pre-Industrial Work Draw of the New World  Basic things that draw people to the new world (America, Australia)  Newly discovered by the Europeans  Not new to aboriginals  Gold – looking for opportunities (not necessarily real gold)  God – trying to convert aboriginals to Christianity  Glory – coming for military means Staples  Dominates early economy  Harold Innis = Classic Definition of Staples o “Business of extracting or acquiring resource or commodities in order to sell them to external market.” o Talking about resource extraction o Staple driven economies are usually feeding markets elseware o Main center is somewhere else o Where staple is being produced and extracted is acquiring it and shipping it somewhere else  Type of economy that develops depends on staple it develops around and how many staples there are  Sugar became the staple of European diet Three Big Staples in Canada Fishing  Grand Banks o 1500s: used small boats and people just casted out lines to catch fish o Covered from head to toe because of severe weather conditions o 18 -19 century had bigger ships  Residential Fishery: o Starts with place holding: people decide they want the best spots for the next season so they start to send people to stay over in Newfoundland to wait for next season o Develops into Newfoundland fishery o More fishing is now done by people who actually live there (not just place holding) o Outports: settlements entirely based on where they are on the ocean, very connected to ocean and not large settlements  Flaking: process of preparing fish to sell/store  Life in Residential Fishery: o “Life is on the water” o Structural disadvantages (so disconnected from outside world so did not know fish prices so often undersold fish, in debt because cost a lot to start fishery and buy boat) o Isolation (merchants came once or twice a year to sell things, merchants born in fishery and lived whole life there without seeing other communities) o Distinct culture (lots of familiarity between people in town, have own language and own accent, lots of socializing within the community but not outside) Furs  Truly unique trade  Commerce and interchange between people  Was through the fur trade that aboriginal peoples in Canada got to know each other  Were kind of forced to because there was a dependency on each other  Mutual dependency o Aboriginals: trapping o Whites: trade goods  Hudson’s Bay Route: o White people set up and waited for aboriginals o Managed fort and waited o Aboriginals did not exchange with people they did not know at all o Said they have to have a cultural event to get to know them o Social gatherings, feasts, festivals, then exchange of goods Montreal Based Trade  Emerges later  Goes to the aboriginals rather than waiting for aboriginals to come to them  Montreal network: o Elaborate networks developed o Reach from Montreal and go very far into Canada o What made networks work was transport o Voyageurs: paddled from Montreal, up the St. Lawrence, through great lakes to Thunder Bay to transport goods out to aboriginals then bring furs back  Voyageur experience: o Injury o Fear of getting lost o Wilderness – could get sick or injured or had to worry about other sick/injured people o Freedom (environment) o “Liminality”: being on the edge of two different societies (made strong connections with aboriginal communities, married aboriginal women but also felt isolated because did not feel like fit into French-Canadian culture or aboriginal culture) Timber Industry  #1 staple in early 19 century  “Hewers of Wood” winter work: person stuck doing the winter wood work  Easier to move trees in winter because ground freezes  Way too much mud and resistance in the summer  Timbering Culture: o Groups of men going deep into woods o Doing dangerous work – lots of injury  Log running: run rafts of large logs down the river in the spring when freezing stopped  Timber-based towns were rough places Keys to Canadian Staples  Seasonal: none of them work year round  Small settlement  Small labour force: do not have industries that require huge permanent labour forces Staples Elsewhere  Included plantations: sugar, etc.  Used slave labour on plantations  Scale of slavery: 10-12 million people came over  Lots of deaths in passage (30%)  1500-1830: 80% of people who came into America were slaves  Not much slavery in Canada because economy did not demand it
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