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LABRST 1A03 (334)
Joe Kim (1)

First Industrial Revolution- Lecture 1.docx

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McMaster University
Labour Studies
Joe Kim

First Industrial Revolution: Lecture 1 Timing of First Industrial Revolution Britain – starts. 1750s United States, Northern France, parts of Germany = early 1800s Canada – 1850s & 1860s Canada’s Political & Economic Background Confederation – 1867 - Ontario, Quebec, and Maritimes Main Goal: Confederation will spur development - Re. Territory = settle the West - Re. Economics = industry & commerce More Political Background Federal Politics: Era of Conservative Dominance - Sir John A. MacDonald - Prime Minister – 1867-73, 1878-91) Ontario Politics: Liberals Dominate - Oliver Mowat, Ontario Premier (1872) More Political & Eco Background Results of Plans for Growth? Disappointment - Settlement = Slow (climate & cultivation Problems. Riel Rebellion) - Economy World Economy - Depressions, esp. 1873-1879, 1891-1895 - “Long Depression” = 1873-1896 Drivers of Revolution Generally FOUR factors drive innovation: - Communication - Transportation - Technology - Technique 1 I.R. Transportation and Technique are biggest in Canada Communication Telegraph and Long-Distance Cable Spreads Industrial & Economic Growth Breaks bond of Human Movement & Information Movement Key in communicating basic information - News - Business: prices, demand, supply, etc. Trans-Atlantic Cable, 1858 - Speeds up the passage of information across the Atlantic - Changes the transportation time of information from 8 days to 3 minutes Transportation Canals Railways Impacts - Reduce isolation of communities/markets - Open producers up to competition Technology Power Sources - Steam New Machines & industries - Railways again Technique Reorganizing work - New methods - New structure to work - SO totally new work experience How does this all unfold? Economists: Different “Paths to industrialization” FOUR Main ones in 1 I.R. - Small shop to factory - Mechanization - New industries - Development in staple industries Small Shop to Factory Back to Master craftsmen’s shop Transportation innovations Pressures from imports Change into Factory Steps - Speed & supplies - Role of merchants – more dependent on merchants - Expansion – need more people - Relocation - need more space - Factory – making the goods takes up more of the shop - Fate of Mastercraftsman - Journeyman: hoping to get the Mastercraftsman status, don’t have as much skill - Apprentices: young (14-15), unskilled, grunt workers Mechanization - new machines = 1 I.R.: steam powered  classic example: steam powered looms - work that used to be done my people is now done by machines New Industries - making things you could not make before - #1 = railway  large players  hidden demand Growing New Industries - Factors in Development  Luck  Government Assistance Railway Works - Spin-Off Industries: Steel - Development in Staple Industries - Increased Finishing - Very Limited
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