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McMaster University
Labour Studies
David Goutor

September 11 2013 th Labor studies Lecture 1 Timing of first industrial revolution: -Britain-started 1750s -United states, Northern France, parts of Germany = Early 1800s - Canada-1850’s and 1860s that industrialization first was introduced. Dawn of the new world: -Gold (riches, economic) -God (Missionaries to convert aboriginal. Numbers were not big but impact was) -Glory (Military… Canada used to be driven by war.) -Canada is part of the ‘new world’ Staples: (Dominate shaping force in early economies) (Resource) -Dominates Early Economy - Harold Innis = Classic Definition (Unfluencial in economics and history.) “Buisness of extracting or acquiring resource commodities in order to sell them to an eternal market.” -Canada has a lot of staples that are needed (Oil) -Main center of development is on the edge and sold to the metropolis. -Early staples in Canada- Fish -Grand banks around Newfoundland has fish that fisherman extracted. -The fish were so thick that the boats skidded on fish. Fishers covered well. Used to work in barrels because the weather conditions were brutal. -Conditions were rough -Boss is the captain of the ship Residential Fishery *Starts with placeholding. *Leave people at the side of the ocean so they could get a jump over everyone else. *People start to live by the ocean to fish everyday. *Develops into Newfoundland Fishery. *Outports (Best spots. Out on the water, no roads, isolation) *Wants to work away from other people *Living permanently in nfld *Entirely determined by the fish *Outports became some of the first settlements (towns) Flaking (c. 1900) *After salting and processing the cod, they are being dried. Life in residential Fishery  “Life is one the water”  Structual disadvantages o Fish prices (never knew the prices of fish. Not many merchants) o Debt (Usually in debt to fisherman.  Isolation  Distinct culture (people who grown up there stay there. Destinct accents)  Winter is settled around survival such as getting food.  Early on, Canada is best known for fishery. Fur Trade  Truly unique trade (Not just trade, it’s an interchange between Aboriginals and whites. Cannot make the trade work without them.  Commerce and interchange between peoples  Mutual dependency o Aboriginals: Trapping (more efficient. Whites couldn’t do it well enough for the trade to work.) o Whites: Trade goods (Goods that aboriginals could not make themselves. Pots and pans, weapons… usually metal.)  Not a straightforward trade.  Hudson’s bay company. o Set up forts o Trade lines to the forts  Sit back and wait for the aboriginals- hudsons bay method Hudson bay trading  Maintenance then: Trade and Festivals.  Needed to satisfy aboriginals  Feast at festivals so that they had something to look forward to.  The fur trade has been said that the aboriginals and Canadians got along rather than the United States. Montreal based trade  Emerges later  Goes to the Aboriginals  Pressures from import  Opposite approach  Went to the aboriginals.  Wanted to make some competition Voyageurs  Transported a lot of stuff  Up start of the year, furs back.  Transport materials  Canoe from mont. To thunderbay and back.  Good could do 2 trips per season. 2000 km?  Difficult  Portage.  They had to portage around Niagara falls  2-3 miles up.  Current was really strong. Needed very experienced.  Injury, fear, wilderness, freedom, environdment “liminality” (Edges of two places. They didn’t belong to French Canadian society. A lot of them married aboriginal women- Maitee)  Story of men who canoed until they were lost and paddled to hell.  Mainly men.  So many birds, migrations would turn skies dark.  Voyageurs sometimes would be bigamists with one aboriginal family, another at home.  #1 staple in 19 century  Timber trade  End of the old growth trees in Vancouver island  By 2004 not much left. September 17 2013 th Labor studies Lecture 1 cont’ TIMBER -Large part of Canada economy -Big export -Old growth trees -Ottawa has big heavily wooded areas. -Ottawa was a timber town. -“Hewers of wood” (Gathering wood and shipping it elsewhere. Not a compliment) Winter work -Majority of work is done in the winter -Harder to cut down in the winter… so, why the winter? The answer is… the ground freezes. -Harder to move logs in mud Timbering Culture -Lots of danger -difficult -Very big trees. -Culture about facing danger, harsh conditions and working hurt. - In the woods- Not just a day job - Well into the deep woods: Isolation - it was however like the fur and fish. Very profitable -Britain had enormous demand. -Log running was a bigger job. -For the adventurous -Easy to drown -Logs roll down the river. -It has become part of the seasonal economy Key to Canadian Staples - SEASONAL -Cycle at different times of the year - SMALL SETTLEMENT -Never have big cities being developed around them -small fisheries - SMALL LABOUR FORCE -You do not see a large labor forces -Not high in demand jobs. Slave labour -In carribean 8-15 million from Africa to become slaves. -Not well fed, disease on ship. -Canada is slavery is existing Scale of slavery -Much smaller in Canada -10-12 Million -Death in passages -% of Total migration 1500-1830? -Across Europe to the new world -New world supposed to be the land of the free -80% of people coming across atlantic were slaves -Was no staple with huge labour force demand. Pre-industrial work- Lecture 2 Settlers and wage labour Agricultural sector - #1 by early 19 century - Re. importance to economy - Re. draw to Canadians colonies o Mainly for agricultural - Re identity of colonies o Lower Canada: Habitant o Upper Canada=pioneer society Myth of the independent farmer - Main draw to New World. They wanted this. - AND I.D. of the new world o Mainly the US- Frontiers (Place of open space) o Canadian colonies too o NOT wild west. Independence - Make it on your own - NOT subsistence (Equated poverty)  I.E. “Not eat what you grow - Independent produce for markets o Grain o Dairy o Beef and poultry - Farm that is productive enough that you are on your own - Free standing- makes enough for us. We answer to nobody else - Produce enough off that farm. - Millions come from Europe. Value of independence - Nobody is your boss o You make your own decisions o No one telling you what to do o Family has key stratagies. - Respectability o Backbone of the community  Decisions were mainly made by these people. o You had status o You made your own way o Reward for hard work  They put in the work, they did the right thins… they have status. o Gender element  Manliness was very desired which was achieved through not having a boss.  Proven yourself Startup costs: Problem - Prices of good land o Hundreds of thousands come over… a lot of people don’t have the money. o All good land is taken, or it’s covered in trees. o Realstate boom - Clearing land o Time to production o Stumping  Getting rid of the stumps because roots sink down so far.  The stump takes up a lot of land that could be productive.  Today we have machines  Then you had a lot of time doing it by hand. o Almost entire lifetime clearing the land o Very small part of the actual farms are productive. o Really rough. Mixing in wage labour - What it lead to had a lot of wages that they had to do. - They had to mix in wage labour - -To pay off debts until farm was up and running. - Had to pay off land etc. - Role of family members o Fe,ales; Taking work in o Bonding out dometics (older daughters. Sign a contract usually 15 or 16. You bond them for service domestics for other families) Girls worried because of this. o Males: Going out  Often went to other places to find work. Working for another farm  Fishery  Timber industry  Was a God Send for some farmers.  Perfect for winter  Without it, many farms would go under o Wide mix of “extra work”  Lots of people mixing different kinds of jobs  Mother would always be home - Value of timber trade - Sending away o Sometimes bonding out o Sending away the older son out o Maritimes meant them sending them out to new England. Rethinking pioneer life - Simple and isolated? NO. o Lot of complications. o People working with other people o “Never ending camping trip from hell” – Not true o Not that isolated - Stratagy and hustle o Families strategizing o Best place to work o Best opportunities o Hustle during harvest time. - Impact on family o If you take a good look at experience o Very often they need to split up o Missing relitives View of paid labour - Transition stage o Your farm is not up and running o Not at indipenent stage. o Should be out of the stage eventually o Over generations would be a problem. - Air of failure o Long term - Respectability? o Rarely saw protests o They had a problem on the job, they thought they would eventually get it over and done with. o Students going into fast food. o Saw as extra work. th September 18 2013 Early trade and unions Craft Workers - Role in community o Had most important role and status. They were very respected. o Production is local because moving goods is very expensive. o Everyone was self sufficient or isolated. “Island Communities” - Dependent on themselves - The key figure was the Master craftsmen Producer ideology - Provide for community - They had an impact on quality of life (i.e. HQ shoes) -Sometimes they were the identity of a community. -They were small shops - Pride September 24 2013 th How does this all unfold? - Economists: Different “Paths to industrialization” - Four Main ones in the first I.R o Small shop to factory o Mechanization o New industries o Developments in staple industries. Change into a factory - Fate of a mastercraftsman o Mastercraftsmen disappear as a class. o No longer same status. o No longer run/control the shop o Not indepenant anymore. o They felt that they lost their “Manliness.” o Sometimes they would catch on. They jump to the business side opposed to the merchants coming to control. o They become partners with Merchants. o This happened in Hamilton and southern Ontario. - Journeyman o They were not as much status before and they were hoping to become mastercraftsman o Their ‘hope’ was gone. o They were no longer be able to reach the top. o They had the roughest time since they were lacking as much skill. - Apprentices o Paternalistic relationship gone. o They have to learn the trade with little to no skill. o Apprentices were no longer there to learn. o Hired increasingly in grunt work. - The merchants takes control. Mechanization - New machines = first I.R. Steam powered o Classic example = steam powered loom. o Work that used to be done by people is now done by machines o Clothing was among the first of things to be industrialized New industries - Making things you could not make before o You have material and products that you could not get or make before. o Not many new products - First railway o Large players o Hidden demand o Largest ‘New’ industries. o Industrialization bringing new players into the field. o Big money o Stumbled into by mainly staple producers- Mining, timber, fishing.  Got their own trains to transport wood.  Saw it a huge expense. Factors in development - Luck o Right place at the right time. - Government assistance o Once you look good for economic issues…They built railways o Government funded railways. o Railway works  First large scale production.  Hundreds of employees.  Factories not that big compared to railways Spin off industries: - Steel o Large amount of steel Development in staple industries - Increased finishing o Finishing product a bit more o Not a finish product o Increases price? - Very limited but high impact due to scale o “Square timber”  Using square timber, it shipped more efficiently.  One of biggest job innovations. - Not a lot of development in Canada New working world in Factories - New roles o Breaking down the tasks o Ore-industrial era  Made product from start to finish o Industrial Era  Tasks broken down  Narrower range of paths  Repetition  Similar things over and over again.  Skill gets replaced by this.  They only know how to do one skill. o Deskilling  NOT complete in first revolution. o Alienation (karl Marx)  Repetation  Connection to work and product  Personal/social connections  Apprenticeships o Gender aspect at work. - New rules o Pre-industrial Era  Control pace and time  Social aspect  Time set aside for scoializing o Industral Era  “Time is Money” = Punctuality  You are working on factory time  Your employer is your boss  Less tolerant of workers going at their own pace.  Lost control of time  They would break the whistle because it was a symbol of lack of freedom  Discipline  Fines o Deadlines o Talking too much o Fine workers for laughing  Large groups were a new thing  Very big into control  You were on the bosses time - New Workers o Continued role of skilled workers  Mastercraftsman still makes decent living. o But vast expansion of unskilled work  Factory girls  Usually around 16  Hauling, cleaning o Semi-Skilled machine operators.  Do have some skill  But tied to that machine  They are not extensively trained.  They were easily replaced.  Some were female, but most were male  Working with a machine opposed to doing skilled kinds of work. - Broad impacts of I.R. o Major advances in productivity and growth o But not even, esp. in Canada  Mostly still resource and agricultural place  Not to say they’re doing badly  They’re not falling behind, but they aren’t advanced. o Sharp divide geographically  By region: central Canada leads  In terms of industrial development  Cities and “Connected” areas are developing.  Cities are most connected to transportation  This is where industrialization are mainly taking off.  “Hinterland”  They are not connected to transportation.  Standard of living was high  They were at a disadvantage to the city.  West is just developing Disruption - As seen: Workers losing status + alienation o Classes disappear o Pushed out of the old ways of doing things - Dislocation o Work them into factors o You have to move to get a job. - Increased mobility o Having to move all over the place - Urbanization (Limited in Canada) o Cities get a lot bigger o Larger amounts of people living together that don’t know eachother o Not self sufficient o Canada is not going as fast as. Reaction to distruption - Order? o Churches an religion are not in charge - Identity? o Most people grew up identifying local community and what they did. o People sense of identity o People feel that they do not have individual identity o National identity - Concerns across political spectrum - Resources and argriculture are still #1 Disrutions in family - Sepetation of work and home o Never kept children away from work until this time - Gender impacts again o World of work was seen as male o Home was seemed to be female - Work = public = male = power - Home = domestic = female = nurturing September 25 2013 th OUTLINE  Emergence of working class  Life of hardships o Breadwinner’s wage o Insecurity  Victorian Ideology  Victorian Charity Emergence of working class You were now working out wages with someone you don’t know. Life of hardships It was very difficult. Many men didn’t make the breadwinner’s wage (Provide for the rest of the family without anyone else having to work) This was the ideal: The man goes to work, the woman stays home and raises kids etc. A lot of family didn’t make this. Insecurity arose When the economy fluctuated. Frequent and serious depressions and major unemployment. The unemployment could spike over 20%. Not many people had long term jobs. They did not have any kind of compensation if they got sick, old etc. There was not a lot of backup. There was a lot of instability as well. It wasn’t even sure if you got paid your wages. Victorian ideology - Dominant idology of the day o Victorian era, 1837-1901 It is all about self-help. They were convinced that Britain was so ahead of everyone because of the work ethic. Victorian Charity They were very commited to doing good. They wanted to help to the poor. You did it to protect the work ethic. They were afraid that if they helped, they may cut down on their work ethic. They needed to protect the work ethic. The work house test They branded themselves “Workhouses”. You had to past the test. It was that you were willing to do any job that you were given in order to get charity. Not getting anything for free. Making it clear by doing pointless jobs. Surivival stratagies for working class families Family stratagies They were on their own. They had to strategize. They had to be clever just to get by. They had a huge problem keeping people fed. Day to day, week to week. Family Roles, Gender divisions  Male o Once boys reach 14, they needed to contribute. o Selling newspapers, Shining shoes. o You were expected to work. o Coal cart = foraging o If fathers could not work, the kids would be in trouble.  Female o Income  They brought work in.  Taking laundry, sewing, cleaning o Girls were sent out to do domestic service.  Extra income and one less mouth to feed.  Once you hit 13 o Stretching resources  Mothers had to be smart  They had to do a lot of the planning.  Fixing clothes, making sure you got out everything you could from your resources.  They really cramped themselves into small spaces.  Slept in a few beds.  Cleaning your feet before you went to bed.  Slept in cramped conditions.  Doubling up families to live in a small space.  Gardens were very important for food  Any extra space, they grew tomatoes.  Animals- Chickens who yield eggs and poultry  Having an animal was not banned until 1980s  A lot of challanges  Life cycle o How you were able to get by o Stage of life that you were in at a given moment o Particular moments in the life cycle that made it difficult  Young people with young families  Less experienced.  High needs, low incomes o People who are old would get nervous.  Slow season in the fall  If they got laid off, would not have a job  Last resorts. o If you cannot make ends meat o Handing out kids to orphanage.  Most orphans had living parents  Their stay was supposed to be temporary. o Jail was another way out  Commits a crime to go to jail o Don’t have family suits in prison. o Terrible conditions in jail October 2 2013d Craft units Conservative -Trade units -They have a number of conservative assets. -Lost control and status from those shops. -Craft unions are conservative -trying to conserve the status, control and power. -“Only the skilled workman” -Trying to hold onto the power -They are holding on to what they have and who they hold onto. -Skilled workers. -White men -Craft unions are typicially older. -Backwards in the sense that they want to keep tradition. -Sense of trying to keep ancient ways. Radical -They are also radical- Goes right to the root. -They wanted to fight directly on how things are done. -Who runs the show. -Directly targets the bosses. -Foremen are not like mastercraftsman. They want to keep control -They want to control how the work goes. -Mutual support -Carpenters union -Skilled trades/building trades (Carpenters, joiners, glassworkers… etc) -Knights of St.Crispen (All major trades had a saint. Shoe making) -Banded together very quickly to take control Results Shoemakers They were the classical example They fought back. The biggest strikes were shoemakers. Their resistance was really effective. Shoe making was one of the most industrialized. In the end, they were reduced to unskilled workers. Seen as the way it went: Tried to put up a fight- Ended uo losing. Kealey He found that it wasn’t always the case. Some trades, unions were much more variation when it comes to outcome. Some unions adjust. The printer union adapted. They established over parts of the job. They got to choose who got hired. Key Variable = Control of trade They were not able to control Handset type = Printing would take people, set the handset type and then set everything on perfect lines. They did their own thing. I.T.U. Convention Delegates Relatively prosperous. Producer ideology Still see a very strong sense from the unions: “We are the ones who know how to make things” Mcdonald was very big into protecting workers . “The old flag, old policy, old leader” Over time, They weren’t seeing eachother as independent workers. Broadening out No “Labour movement” Until 1870s. Creating more coherence. Early = Localized - The structures were very localized. - One employer and one town. - Big strike in Hamilton. - One painters union fighting against empolyers. - Large organizations. - More unions getting formed. Growth within trades - Different workers in the same trade, different cities joining the same organization. - In Canada, they didn’t want to broaden out in Canada, They wanted to with the US: International Unionism. o Controversial: Dues would go to americans, competition. - Had upside American based unions were big and quite strong. - Strike fund will pay workers on strike. - The US had a strike fund of 10 million. Local Councils -Start to see Hamilton as first -Local cousils forming - to support other unions to go on strike. - Singling out and bouycotting. -Give union more leverage 9 hour Movement - Starts to target specific issues. - The hours of work that a worker should work. - Industrial hours- 6 days as a week. No limitations. - 9 hours of work, 6 days a week. 9-6 - Did rotating strikes. - Important because the union challenged views of workers. - Far-reaching implications - If workers were not kept busy, they would cause trouble. - Idol masses- nothing for them to do. - Believed that they were causing problems if they stayed at work. - The father is not home enough. - Community engagement. Cannot have father figures away from home - Gets going in 1870s - 1872, they co-ordinate action in different places in the country (Rotating strikes) Toronto Printers’ strike - They were centered on own issues. - Bargening the early 1870s - 9 hour day were part of core demands. - Leader of the employers is George Brown. (Liberal part of Canada. Classic liberal, free markets.) - Unions are consperacies to contain the market - If they’re upset, the withdraw labour. - Unions are bad. March of 1870 - Top 3 strikes. - Political turn. - Several weeks = no progress. - April 15 1872- The union holds a rally. - Largest labour protest. - 300000 people - Ontario and parts of Quebec. Americans were impressed, Did this all the time. - Start of Labour day. - Impressed by the power - George brown and head of the printers. He was impressed but not in a good way. He cannot believe it. He goes to the police and leaders of the strike arrested. - “Criminal conspericy in grounds of trade.” - Weather the unions are illegal. October 8 2013th BIRTH OF THE LABOUR MOVEMENT View of the workers: - Wasn’t just in Canada - US wanted 8 hours April 15 1872 - The labour day parade. Repression - George brown freaks out at rally - Hates printing employers? - Has the lead of the printers arrested for Conspiracy. Political showdown: John A. Macdonald - He was the long-time enemy of George brown. - He passes the trade union act which legalized unions. o 1872, unions are legalized. - Criminal law amendment act in 1872 o Puts severe limit on unions such as pickets. o Looking at people on picket line is threatening. o This worked. - The printing strike settles this issue. - 9 hour day not achieved - Only over time would limits on work actually time. Political Lobbying - Voice in politics. - On a provincial level. - DANIEL O’DONOGHUE o Connected the conservative party. - First kinds of things that they lobbied about told you what working conditions were like. MASTER AND SERVANT ACT - Before the fishers - It is the standard law when confederated. - The relationship between worker and boss. - The boss is the ‘Master’ - The ‘servant does what the master says. - The worker can sue if boss breaks contract. - Boss cannot sue for as much money. - It criminalizes quitting your job - You can be put in Jail. - Once the movement gets going, they want to decriminalizing quitting. - Early 1880’s they change this: They cannot have a criminal record for that. - Made job quitting like doing cannabis. FACTORY ACTS - First laws to put any limits on safety conditions on job. o Any kind of regulation. o Put a guard on things – Simple things. - Didn’t allow fining - If you got hurt, you got to sue your employer. - Outlawed child labour o It was very common- mainly in garment industry due to small hands and nimble. o Girls under 14 and boys under 12. o Boys over age 12, could work. - If a child was caught working at a factory, the parents got punished. o Most parents did not have a lot of money anyway. o The law was not going to punish employers for child labour. National Assemblies - Gave a voice on a national level - Canadian labour Union 1873-77 - Trades and labour congress, 1883- o Merges in 1956? To form labour congress? o Still here today. - Main issue is trade. Debate about free trade - Protective tariff o Go up 35% to inflate the goods. o Essential for keeping trade alive - They were not in favour of free trade. - Britain had an empire- they want free trade. October 8 knights of labour - Hard to remember - Did not lead to revolutionary change; Push back. - Secretive prodictent society - 1869 philadelphia Diffrerent kind of organization Rise and fall TERENCE POWDERLY - In 1879, he became the leader - Very accomplished writer - Articulate leader. - Captured the imagination- channel energy - Irish Catholic. - Organization broadened. - Letting in people of different religions GREAT UPHEAVAL - 1885 took on biggest industrial power - Huge confrontation, and Knights won. - Takes off in 1885 - The knights lost track of the people that was apart. - 2 Million joined within a few months. - 70 000 in Canada. - Enomous pushback - The people were really worried about the knights. COLLAPSE - Members fell off the cliff in 1886 - Fell apart really quickly STRUCTURE - Different than craft unions. o They were about controlling the trade and they were small (Craft unions) o The Knights were not strict. They wanted to represent everyone BROAD AND FLEXIBLE - They wanted workers on the local level - Organize by trade was still accepted. - They were very flexible MIXED ASSEMBLIES - They would let the trades and groups mix. - Different types of workers SMALL TOWN ORGANIZING - Like Paris Ontario - Not enough workers. - Knights are the first to organize. o Really scared people in power. Now spreading into smaller towns. It concerned leaders. Symbols = K of L seal - Used symbols (no other group did.) o To communicate - Needed to find ways to communicate - Triangle and Circle o Perfect circle is symbol of unity. o It is perfectly in unison. (The angle would be the same.) o If everyone is moving in the same direction, there is unity o Three circles o The triangles  Any point is connected to the other. There is no disconnection.  Inter connected ness of society  Each side of triangle represented a part of the economy.  If one side is disconnected, the economy would crumble? o Knights were opposed to financial speculation Ideals and values - Very idealistic. - Embraced their identity. - Had clear ideals - Did not just want to be workplace organization or ‘Bread and butter’ issues. Humanity and work - They wanted to protect this above all - Wanted the retain a sense of humanity - Humanity is being lost. - They needed to maintain a common bond among people. - This extended for all workers: Unskilled, semi skilled etc. - Shared unity ‘Brotherhood’? - Knights were the first to organize ‘black’ workers in the South. o Rocked the comfort zone. - Bonds among all workers. “Bonds of unity”. Cooperation - Industrialization and capitalism is new. - Language of competitiveness. - Wants people to look at different models- cooperatives. - Farmers: More traction. - Uphold their humanity. - Dignity in what they did: Held hammers in pictures. - Wanted to speak to moral issues. Moral Values - Wanted to address changes in society - Wanted to go along with economic changes. - Is it moral choice to encourage child labour? - Challenge capitalism and industrialization, but also morally as well. - Are the changes actually moral? - Occupy movement. - Is it right that some people have so much and some so little. - Speculation on currency - Value of the land goes up. Family - The knights were conservative as well o Protecting the family unity from industrialization. o Felt that a lot of the changes in the economy were putting on strains on family morally- Father out working, separated etc. Protection of Women - Tension between the Knights. - In some ways, they saw themselves as ‘protecting women’. - The men would walk and the women would be carried in buggies. Breadwinner’s wage - Was a wage sufficient to support the rest of the family without working. - The man of the house should make this wage. - Women and young girls would not have to work. - A lot of the women did work. Organizing women - One of first groups that allowed women to organize. (First secular) - They not only allowed them to organize, but also allowed all women locals and assemblies. - Allowed all female locals and female leaders. - The leaders are women. - Only organization that was close the salvation army. o All leaders were still men. Movement culture - Single biggest thing. - Bryan Palmer? - Trying to create a culture. o Trying to change the culture so people would question. - Promoting people asking questions. - “Do your own thing”. - You would ask difficult questions. - Assembly halls themselves. o Wanted to replace the old shops  Socialization etc. Media - Big on promoting through media. - Largest were the newspapers. Palladium of labour - Produced in Hamilton - Influential newspaper. - Wide Following - Used platform to promote Knights ideas. Brainworkers - Types of people who it attracted. - Philips Thompson o Wrote for POL o He had a continuing legacy. Politics? - Knights continue to grow. - The government doesn’t fall - By 1886, many people were drawn to the Knights. o The politicians got scared. - There started to be divisions due to politics. - People favored politics. - They could get power. - Self-protection. - They had to be involved. - Terence powderly wanted to focus on the broader issues. Workplace Action? - Wanted to use influence to help workplace. - Wanted to start strikes. - The leaders were resistant. - They were worried about losing momentum If the strikes lost. - The strikes and confrontations got the police more opportunities. - Knights would get a bad reputation. - More excited and tense all in one. Haymarket Incident th - Happens May 4 1886 in Chicargo o Strongest points of knights in the labour industry - Big strike starting in April. - May 4 , there was a huge rally organized by Knights to support strike. - The police go in, and a bomb goes off that kills police and injures protesters. - Incident becomes famous because of the violence. - Major embarrassment to Knights and gets them in trouble. - The authorities identify four main Leaders in haymarket incident and has them hung. Decline - The haymarket brings the end of the Knights. - Tumbling effect for two years - 1888 low number. - As knights go into decline, the leaders fight. - Politics to defend politics. - They could not recover. Chevaliers Du Travail - Quebec’s KOL spikes in quebec when the knights are declining everywhere else - Catholic church was biggest power. o Condemned the knights. - The Knights go all the way to the Vatican. - 1888 they laid off the knights. - The knights take off. - Quebec saves the knights for a brief part of time. - They seemed ‘hopeless’ at first. Vs. Samuel Gombers - Craft unions continue to grow. - Gompers become the ‘craft union guy’. - leading voice in clean craft union - control the trade - Each union will represent a trade. -only skilled workers A.F.L. - American federation of labour - Starts taking all craft unions under one umbrella - One craft union run the trades. - Bread and butter issues. o He is known for. - Bread and butter unions- they can focus anything they want to, but the unions would work best to get a better deal. - Dominant labour organixation - AFL becomes main organization. Voice of labour - Gompers wants to be the president in biggest union - Wanted each union to control the trade - Each union the voice of the trade. - All the unions join the AFL, Gompers becomes the voice. - Has a lot of power. - The one thing that drives- the 2 I.R. comes to Canada. October 9 th Knights of labour PT 2 October 15 2013 th Second I.R. Started. Broad overview of changes - Second I.R. - Corperate capitalism: Larger corporations - Assembly linrs - Corp. given a name. o Ford o GM o Chrysler o US steel o Xxon. - Rubber, ridgestone, firestone o Household names - Expanded offices and new skylines. - One of the key signs is the emergence of large obstacles. - Tallest building at the start of 20 century is the royal York hotel in Canada. o Now no longer even in top 50 in Toronto. - US becomes largest economy in Canada - Canada is very slow. 1900 is when it takes off. Corporate capitalism Context: Economic Boom - Canada struggled in early economic years - 20 century is the turning point - Wheat - Economy starts booming. - Edmonton ended up growing 5 times in span of 20 years Resources THE FOLLOWING THING TAKES OFF. - Timber - Pulp and paper takes off - Newspaper - Wheat - Mining o Iron ore, gold, silver, nickel, copper… o They hit a jackpot so to speak. o Canada enjoys huge benefits. o Mining work is rough, but big money. o Canada is big player in mining world. o Hungry for workers- hiring hungry - Wilfrid Laurier o Priminister in 1896 o Takes power as economy booms o Goes on to 100 years o Policies were not changed. Manufacturing - Most is not for export- mainly for Canadian market - Branch plant economy - In Canada you have manufacturing non-canadian companies. - Bringing in products would have taxes. Forces driving Technology #1 - Driving innocation - FOUR Factors drive innovation o Communication o Transportation o Technology - Laboratories for new science - Innovatives and engineers and scientists (Henry ford) Craft unions - Keep control over workers. - They control things like apprenticing (Printers) - A lot of workers do not like power of craft unions. - Deskilling is a major benefit for employers. o More control Tech and Physical changes - Not the same factories. Power Supply st - Power supply in 1 was steam which limited spacing. o Often cramped. o Constrained by the need - The main power is electricity in 2 nd o It can be spread out. o Looked like warehouse. - Steel making has machines that can move things: cranes o Allowed to spread out more - They didn’t need windows in the second I.R. because they had electricity. - You don’t have to slow down in the winter when it gets dark early. - Could work at night. - Big sprawling complexes. - Strong connection between power supply and power line. - Electricity is the primary power but others used too - Chemical innovations sped up the process in breaking things down. - Paper pulp o Before chemicals- involved chopping wood and trying to roll it flat. o Hyper powered chemicals that break down the wood to become pulp. - Plant Layout - Steel making has machines that can move things: cranes o Allowed to spread out more - They didn’t need windows in the second I.R. because they had electricity. - You don’t have to slow down in the winter when it gets dark early. - Could work at night. - Big sprawling complexes. - Strong connection between power supply and power line. - Assembly lines had workbenches behind - All made the same way. - People all over are eating and buying the standardized things. - Lots of people fear the lost identity. - EX. Clothing, computers, phones, communication all the same. Managerial Stratagies - Not a very serious thing - Strictly commercial issues. - Management looks on how to manage workers. - How to work with them or how to punish them Job ladder - Fine radiations or steps in hierarchies - Tried to find new ways to find incentives. - Little hierarchies o Couple cents more per hour o Or punishment- knock them down the ladder a few steps - Steel had 25,000 had different levels. Piece rates - Pieces you produce instead of by hour - Such as clothing nd - 2 IR expands this dramatically. - Sometimes teams competing with eachother. - It worked well in groups. It was very effective. Drive system - A foreman behind workers driving them on. - To motivate you to work harder. - Very popular in sports- coaches picked up - Singling one person out that is doing everything right the “Goat” - Very popular technique in football. Sci management and Taylorism -Fredric taylor - Taking issues of management and handling them scientifically - Purely promortional. - Sales pitch. - He was a self-promoter and thinker. nd - Taylor was given a lot of credit for 2 I.R. - He was very good at capturing the mood Conception vs. execution - Conception is thinking through on how to make something - Execution is the actual making. - He catches on to this because he want to highlight how it’s changing. - Skilled workers know how to make things. - Now conception is falling outside of business o It is what businesses are doing. (Ford and the all the details) o Taylor cheers this on. - Workers were the grunts.s Time-motion studies - Ways to encourage things in the most scientific way possible. - He loved to look scientific - Scientifically break down everything workers would do things. o Also break it down and time it. o Every way the workers move. o Make it more efficient. o I.e. pivoting. - Tried to taylorise the kitchens. o Worked to a large extent. - Breaking down female workers. - Served to humiliate the worker and made things more efficient. - Taylor wanted this. Make the worker know you are in control. Broad impacts Dislocation nd - Excellerates in 2 I.R. - Much larger factories. - Lots of workers. - Cities are redesigned - Fear of losing identitiy. - More and more non-local items. - More choice. - A lot of people were afraid- Churches Democracy - Increasing sense of losing power - Emergence of large corporations - Large concern about democracy because of the lost independence. - Independent citizens were vital for democracy to work. Progressiveism - Expand power of citiszens and democracy - Change scope of government. - Protecting the public from a consumer point of view. - They were interested in forming new organization. - Expanding unions. - Canadians were generally happy to have growing economy. - Growth imperative- becomes very big theme. - The people who lose their jobs will get replaced. - “Rising tide raises all boats” - Do not come into Canada very much at this time Working women Continuities - Things don’t change - A lot of basic views are maintained. Types of work - They were allowed to household work- garment making is also women’s job - Still very close to male and female work - Other kinds of work such as factory work - This was for younger women (16-25) - When they got their mid 20s, they had to leave jobs (Mainly factories) - That point, women are supposed to be getting married. - Window is very narrow. - They saw women as a temporary part of labour - They weren’t going to stay in the work force - They believed women were bad investments. Union attitudes - Unions are male oriented. - “Macho culture” as it was a part of gender identity. - Women were supporters like bouycaughting - Secondary presence. Changes Garment industry - Female dominated - Became mechanized. - Much more standardized. - Made for large retailers- standardized stuff. - Levels of deskilling. - First to take off - Essensial, but not seen as such since they were women dominated. - In big cities (Toronto, New York) were big for garment industries. - Lots of office work. - Saw men working at desks - Very literate and organized. - Overwhelmingly male - During 2 IR, the offices boom which creates lots of new jobs - Women start working in a lot of offices as well as grunts. Job Ghettos - Term is metaphor “Place you don’t want to be.” - It’s hard to get out of if born in there. - The workers in it are from a bad neighbourhood. Working Women’s status? - Not blue collar work - Not middle class managerial work- no status or respect. - New catagories. - Pink collar are feminized- job ghettos. o Not blue or white collar October 16 2013 th Mixed impacts of Boom - A lot more jobs - Finding a lot of craftworkers under pressure - A lot of them do not make the money - Not much unemployment - Makes them look at unions - Looking to unions to protect them. - Goes to international AFL craft unions - AFL and gompers Gompers’ consumerism - Very influential in Canada - He becomes more focused on consumerism. V. producerism - Consumerism – individual (bread and butter unions and wages - Producerism – mass production Bread and Butter unionism - Shifts the focus. - Use your skill to get the leverage you need. - In the wider debates. - When it came to debates like higher wages, he was very effective. - Took on the employers complaints. - Countering employers complaints about higher wages o Means higher prices for you. - Gobers says: “Yes it’s true- lower wages is lower prices” o There is a term where lower wages exist and prices are lower… the term is “Poor” - Higher prices = higher standing - There was a racial thing to it, but other than that it worked. - In NYC, it’s expensive, but better lifestyle Gompers and Politics “Reward your friends and punish your enemies - Who ever you work with if your friend. - Labour eventually rewards friends and punishes enemies. Organizing surge - Total of international locals in Canada o Early 19890s 350-400 o 1902- over 1000 o 1914- Almost 1800 Trades and labour congress John Flett - Becomes Gombers point man - Tactic: Top organizers that know regions, industries and economies - Most important in labour movement. Gompers and the TLC (Trades and labour congress) - He does not like what he sees in Canada. - Not a good relationship: Him and the TLC - Still knights of labour in it. - TLC want to tie labour to politics. - President of the TLC is part of the liberal party. Berlin 1902 - Berlin used to be Kitchener - Very large german population - At the convention of the TLC, Gompers takes over very formally the TLC - Restructures on his wants. - The main force is controlled and structured on Gompers. - Not much of a micromanager - “Crisis of the Craftsman” - As this is unfolding, still continuing face problems of control because of industrialization - Getting pushed by Technology. - Printing industry o Only one worker to a station o Mechanized - See more stress lead by craft unions - More difficult to report. Industrial Unionism - Tries to push for new model - Craft unions based on controlling a trade (Skills. You cannot be replace otherweise no leverage) Base is numbers - Large number of workers Mass unionism - Strength in numbers - Organize all workers in an industry. - I.e. the Autoworkers union - Very popular among socialists Socialism - Will complain about craft unions - Mining and garment - Mining union becomes the biggest union. British columbia - Relatively small except BC. “Left Coast” - Socialists had lots of power in BC. - Mining is also very strong. - The main model is still craft unions. Experience and Role of immagrants Immigration and development - Pushing for more and more workers - When the boom takes off, there is an increasing demand of workers in resource industries - Immigrants were important for markets. - Bringing people in to markets would be seen as fundamental National policy - Three basic: Tariff (Tax on imports), Building the railway to settle the west and connect and lastly encouraging immigration. - th Late 19 century - Actively recruited immigrants - 1870s- 30,000 to 35 - Early 1880s – 120,000 - Late 1880s – Under 90,000 - Mid 1890s – Under 30,000 - Under 40,000 was not nearly enough for Canada. - It began to slide in 1890s back under 30,000. Early 20 c. Boom - The economy takes off - Large scale immigration is also there. - In 1902 hits new heights - In 1907- 272,409 - 1913- 400,870 o This was the highest - Clear role in the expansion of the economy happening during this time. - In 1913, a lot of people wanted to get out of Europe. Varied experiences Skilled workers - A lot of farmed labour was temporary. - A lot of people who are coming to farm - Their experience varies. - One of the biggest dividing points is the skill level. - The transition was difficult but doable most of the time. - They could get jobs but not usually what they were promised. - Large numbers of skilled workers became the backbone of the trade union. - Unskilled - The majority of workers coming in were unskilled workers Hardship and insecurity - Increasingly difficult. - Not a lot of structure or organization - Most of the time, they would have some kind of short term relationship - Vast majority were single men without secured jobs. - ‘rough work’ outside in minding or timber, remote conditions. - Working on the railway o During the winter o Rough - Did not have secured work - Sometimes would pick people from the factory gates. Daily. - Levels of control - In debt - Very often their employers that owned that debt - A lot of cities or remote areas. At the company store - Slept on Company property - CPR and CNR - Thrown out of town and work. - Basic level of control is taking advantage of those from new countries. Community support and ethnic niches - They turned o create their own citie
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