The 2 Industrial Revolution Part 1.
October 15, 2013
Broad Overview of Changes
- Acceleration in how things are made
- Assembly lines are most important (simple tasks)
- Corporate capitalism (larger corporations become a much bigger part of the economy.
Ex ford, GM, oil companies, tire companies, etc. become powerful and household names
that we still use today)
- Vastly expanded office space, ex. Downtown Chicago (tons of office buildings)
Context: Economic Boom
- U.S. becomes largest/best economy
- Wheat industry grows
- Canada is a resource industry (wheat, timber, pulp and paper, and most importantly,
- Canada enjoys huge benefits in this time, ever since 2 i.r. Canada plays a huge role in
- Wilfred Laurier is prime minister at the time,
- Manufacturing in Canada develops much more, most manufacturing in Canada are
American companies setting up in Canada.
• Branch plant economy – in Canada, what we have, is driven by American
companies. It is still like that today.
- Communication, transportation
- Technology #1
- Craft unions
Tech and Physical Changes
- The physical layout of a 2 i.r. plant is fundamentally different than one from the 1 i.r.
- Main power supply is electricity
- New plants look like warehouses (lots of room for assembly lines)
- Plants are getting larger
- 1 i.r. plants had to have windows because they didn’t have electricity
- But now there is electricity, so plants did not have windows st
- They also do not have to slow down in different seasons (winter was slow in 1 i.r.
because it got dark quick and therefore, they couldn’t work late)
- After the 2 i.r. that wasn’t a problem anymore
- Ford assembly lines need electricity to make it work (motors, etc.)
- Also used after 2 I.R.
- Assembly lines= food processing (standardization, everything is much more predictable
and reliable, but lots of people feared the loss of identity. Everyone starts to wear the
same clothes, eating the same things, etc.)
- Transformed by chemical innovations (paper pulp)
- How to get the most out of the work place
- How to give them incentives and rewards, but also how to punish them
- Job ladder- little hierarchies and steps within work places. Giving little incentives to the
workers so they would work harder. For example, hierarchies (they would get paid a bit
more or, if they are doing a bad job, less)
- Piece rates- getting paid by the piece, rather by the hour
- Drive system- driving techniques, singling one person out and picking on them
mercilessly (often in sports). This is effective because no one wanted to be that one
Sci. Management and Taylorism