Draw of the New World:
o Riches to be made in the new world
o Enormous amounts of gold in Mexico
o Christian missionaries trying to convert aboriginals
o To spread and fight for an empire
o 6 wars between Britain and France in the Canadian colonies
o Wars between Britain and France, also in Caribbean
Dominates Early Economy
Harold Innis = Classic Definition
o "Business of extracting or acquiring resource commodities in order to sell them to an external market."
Innis was the thinker of how staples were brought around
Staples tend to supply other people in other places
Resource industries will remain important (i.e., Canada is even more of a resource industry today than before).
Early staples in Canada:
Grand banks along New Foundland, had very thick schools of fish populations
Migratory fishery: early fisher was in boats where during summer they went out and in winter they came
back. Boats were not very big and were on rough seas. They got many fish through casting lines out, no nets
were used. The fishers also used clothing to cover their whole body due to coldness and wetness (difficult
conditions). Had people come from Britain, France, Portugal...
Was not hard to get people to be fishers
18th - Early 19th Century ships: harsh conditions for fishing
Starts with Placeholding (finding the best spot to fish)
Develops into Nftl. Fishery
Outport fishing: society designed to focus on fishing, isolated, no roads, distinct culture (language,
Flaking, C.1900: salting the cod and sitting it out on peers or planks so they can dry. Very labour
They lived on the shores which differs from migratory fishing.
Life in residential fisher:
`life is on the water`
Structural Disadvantages (fish prices - most times did not know price of fish, debt - have
lots of start up costs)
Isolation - in longer term people would stay there for many generations, so many would
never leave the community.
Distinct Culture - in winter they have more leisure, thus time to have distinct culture
In 1992, the fishery fell apart because no more fish
o Fur Trade Truly unique trade
Commerce and interchange between peoples
Mutual dependency - both sides needed each other
Aboriginals: Trapping, catching beavers
Whites: Trade goods - cooking materials, guns, clothes
Hudson's bay Route: had forts along the routes and waited for aboriginals to come to them.
Work consisted of keeping the forts maintained, then trade which consisted of festivals.
Montreal based trade
Goes to the aboriginals - as opposed to Hudson's bay route about letting them come to you, which
allows an enormous network to emerge very far inland along great lakes. This means you need
transportation of goods and furs
Transport was done by voyageurs in canoes who would paddle all day to get goods to
where they have to go.
A portage was the way people had to move the canoes out of the lake and take it onto land.
``Liminality`` - voyageurs were not entirely in French Canadian culture, not in
fur trade culture, or native. They were in between or on edges of different
Legend of Modite: voyageurs that paddled into hell
Pressure from imports
Number 1 staple in the early 19th century
Needed it for construction
Significant environmental impact of timber cutting
``hewers of Wood`` Winter Work - if you want to move logs its much easier when the ground is frozen, and
in summer there's too much mud. It means to supply wood for others!!!
Timbering culture: working through injury, pain, and lack of fear, very masculine
Log Running: rolling of logs into a river in spring especially and run the logs down through to the main
Keys to Canadian Staples:
o No staples will work all year round
o Fur trading forts are not big settlements
o Timber colonies only there in winter
o Residential fisheries are small
Small Labour Force
o Number of workers involved is small, which in longer term has major impact
Bigger Issue: What's missing
Staple Elsewhere Plantations: will be massive industries (rise, spices, tobacco, sugar, cotton)
Slave labour: massive movement of them into new world
Slave ships mortality was very high
Scale of Slavery:
o 10 - 12 m