Class Notes (838,271)
Canada (510,816)
LABRST 1A03 (339)
David Goutor (304)

Labour studies week 1

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Labour Studies
David Goutor

Preindustrial Work Staple production Draw of the New World:  Gold o Riches to be made in the new world o Enormous amounts of gold in Mexico  God o Christian missionaries trying to convert aboriginals  Glory o To spread and fight for an empire o 6 wars between Britain and France in the Canadian colonies o Wars between Britain and France, also in Caribbean Staples:  Dominates Early Economy  Harold Innis = Classic Definition o "Business of extracting or acquiring resource commodities in order to sell them to an external market."  Innis was the thinker of how staples were brought around  Staples tend to supply other people in other places  Resource industries will remain important (i.e., Canada is even more of a resource industry today than before).  Early staples in Canada: o Fish  Grand banks along New Foundland, had very thick schools of fish populations  Migratory fishery: early fisher was in boats where during summer they went out and in winter they came back. Boats were not very big and were on rough seas. They got many fish through casting lines out, no nets were used. The fishers also used clothing to cover their whole body due to coldness and wetness (difficult conditions). Had people come from Britain, France, Portugal...  Was not hard to get people to be fishers  18th - Early 19th Century ships: harsh conditions for fishing  Residential Fishery:  Starts with Placeholding (finding the best spot to fish)  Develops into Nftl. Fishery  Outport fishing: society designed to focus on fishing, isolated, no roads, distinct culture (language, dialect)  Flaking, C.1900: salting the cod and sitting it out on peers or planks so they can dry. Very labour intensive.  They lived on the shores which differs from migratory fishing.  Life in residential fisher:  `life is on the water`  Structural Disadvantages (fish prices - most times did not know price of fish, debt - have lots of start up costs)  Isolation - in longer term people would stay there for many generations, so many would never leave the community.  Distinct Culture - in winter they have more leisure, thus time to have distinct culture  In 1992, the fishery fell apart because no more fish o Fur Trade  Truly unique trade  Commerce and interchange between peoples  Mutual dependency - both sides needed each other  Aboriginals: Trapping, catching beavers  Whites: Trade goods - cooking materials, guns, clothes  Hudson's bay Route: had forts along the routes and waited for aboriginals to come to them.  Work consisted of keeping the forts maintained, then trade which consisted of festivals.  Montreal based trade  Emerges later  Goes to the aboriginals - as opposed to Hudson's bay route about letting them come to you, which allows an enormous network to emerge very far inland along great lakes. This means you need transportation of goods and furs  Transport was done by voyageurs in canoes who would paddle all day to get goods to where they have to go.  A portage was the way people had to move the canoes out of the lake and take it onto land.  Voyageur experience: Injury Fear Wilderness Freedom (environment) ``Liminality`` - voyageurs were not entirely in French Canadian culture, not in fur trade culture, or native. They were in between or on edges of different cultures  Legend of Modite: voyageurs that paddled into hell  Pressure from imports o Timber  Number 1 staple in the early 19th century  Needed it for construction  Significant environmental impact of timber cutting  ``hewers of Wood`` Winter Work - if you want to move logs its much easier when the ground is frozen, and in summer there's too much mud. It means to supply wood for others!!!  Timbering culture: working through injury, pain, and lack of fear, very masculine  Log Running: rolling of logs into a river in spring especially and run the logs down through to the main supply. Keys to Canadian Staples:  Seasonal o No staples will work all year round  Small Settlement o Fur trading forts are not big settlements o Timber colonies only there in winter o Residential fisheries are small  Small Labour Force o Number of workers involved is small, which in longer term has major impact Bigger Issue: What's missing  Staple Elsewhere  Plantations: will be massive industries (rise, spices, tobacco, sugar, cotton)  Slave labour: massive movement of them into new world  Slave ships mortality was very high  Scale of Slavery: o 10 - 12 m
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